By René E.Van Grieken, Andrzej A. Markowicz, Rene Van Grieken, A. Markowicz
Updates basics and purposes of all modes of x-ray spectrometry. Promotes the exact dimension of samples whereas lowering the scattered heritage within the x-ray spectrum.
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Additional resources for Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry Revised and Expanded
0225261023 atoms=g atom). The mass attenuation coeﬃcient m (cm2=g) is the ratio of the linear attenuation coeﬃcient and the density of the material. It is worth mentioning that the absorption coeﬃcient is a much more restricted concept than the attenuation coeﬃcient. Attenuation includes the purely elastic process in which the photon is merely deﬂected and does not give up any of its initial energy to the absorber; in this process, only a scattering coeﬃcient is involved. In a photoelectric interaction, the entire energy of the incident photon is absorbed by an atom of the medium.
The shape of the Raman band is similar to that of the soft x-ray K absorption spectrum of the solids. Mizuno and Ohmura (1967) have found the following two conditions for x-ray Raman scattering: 4p" a <1 l0 Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc. ð85Þ and hv0 ) EK ð86Þ where a" is the mean radius of charge distribution of the K electrons and l0 is the wavelength of the incident x-rays. 2 ) 4p" a y 4p" a y 2 ð87Þ sin þT2 ðlÞ sin Iðy; lÞ ﬃ ð1 þ cos yÞ T1 ðlÞ l0 2 l0 2 where T1(l) and T2(l) factors are related to the dipole and multipole transitions, respectively.
A new and more systematic notation for x-ray emission lines and absorption edges, based on the energy-level designation, was developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (Jenkins et al. 1991). Because the new notation, called the IUPAC notation, replaces the Siegbahn’s notation, some characteristic features of the new nomenclature must be mentioned. , L2 and L3 , Copyright © 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc. instead of LII and LIII ). In the IUPAC notation, states with double or multiple vacancies should be denoted by, for example, K2 ; KL1 , and Ln2;3 , which correspond to the electron conﬁgurations 1sÀ2 ; 1sÀ1 2sÀ1 , and 2pÀn , respectively.