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Extra resources for Physics Reports vol.70
SAMPLE TUBE RECEIVER COIL SOLENOID RECEIVER COIL rf / SOLENOID 1 m | m (a) (b) Fig. 8 Typical probe geometry employed with a single coil probe in (a) a supercon ducting magnet and (b) an iron core magnet. In each case the rf coil is fabricated in such a way that Hx is perpendicular to H0. With a superconducting magnet, which is normally in the shape of a long solenoid, the most convenient axis for a cylindrical sample tube is along that of the solenoid, which is the direction of H0. 9 Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements 45 analogs of the expressions in Eq.
2) where κ, the volume magnetic susceptibility, is negative for all diamag netic materials. For the sample, KS is approximately the weighted average of the values for solute and solvent; for sufficiently dilute solutions this is nearly the value for the solvent. But the external reference in general will have a value K R ^ KS. 4. The functions of locks and references are different, but in some cases a single compound can serve as both an internal lock substance and a reference. 44 3. Instrumentation and Techniques a molecule in the reference.
4 we saw that the strength of an NMR signal, which is measured by the area under the NMR line, is proportional to the number of nuclei contributing to the line. Accurate measurements of these areas greatly facilitate the interpretation of spectra and also provide a means of conducting quantitative analyses. Most NMR spectrometers are equipped with electronic integrators, which record relative areas of spectral lines as a step function such as the one in Fig. 1. In principle such integrations can be accurate to within 1-2% provided signal/noise ratio is sufficiently high.