By Gilbert Barnabe
В книге освещены биологические и экологические основы производства биокультур в воде, а также рассказывается о путях решениях проблем, возникающих во время данного процесса.
Read or Download Aquaculture: Biology And Ecology Of Cultured Species (Ellis Horwood Series in Aquaculture and Fisheries Support) PDF
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Extra info for Aquaculture: Biology And Ecology Of Cultured Species (Ellis Horwood Series in Aquaculture and Fisheries Support)
Aquaculturists must pay close attention to the hardness of water. Various indices are used to measure hardness: – Total hardness. This is the sum of the calcium and magnesium ions. It is an expression of the temporary hardness (which disappears when the water is boiled because of the deposition of calcium) and permanent hardness (which remains after boiling; unprecipitated calcium and magnesium). – Hardness expressed as either the level of calcium or of magnesium respectively. – Alkalinity. This gives information on the level of carbonates, bicarbonates and hydroxides but it is necessary to distinguish: – simple alkalinity, which measures the total level of alkaline hydroxides but only half the level of carbonates – total alkalinity, which measures the total level of hydroxides, carbonates, alkaline bicarbonates and alkaline earths.
46. 31. Fig. 6 (Alzieu 1989) shows the relationship between oxygen saturation, salinity and temperature. THE PRODUCTION OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS [PT. 025% of the principal constituents. 03%) may be of disproportionately great significance because they include the mineral elements (nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) which are essential for the production of living matter in water. The nitrogen compounds (nitrites, nitrates, ammonium salts) and phosphorus compounds (various phosphates) are used with carbon dioxide (see ‘Dissolved gases’, below) by phytoplankton in the synthesis of living matter under the action of sunlight (photosynthesis).
It is essential that the trout have access to the surface (or to an air pocket). A 10 m increase in depth means an increase in pressure of one atmosphere. Atmospheric precipitation Rain may affect aquaculture by reducing the salinity of the water and thereby eliminating marine species in shallow sites which are normally saline. There may be a proliferation of pathogenic bacteria from fresh water which cannot survive in full-strength sea water (this leads to a prohibition on the sale of shellfish as in 1989 in the Etang de Thau because of Salmonella).