By Gary M Barker
With an expected 35,000 species, terrestrial molluscs are essentially the most winning and numerous animal teams in land-based ecosystems. those animals have lengthy been of value to human societies as nutrients, drugs, crop pests, vectors of parasites, and as instruments, own ornamentation and foreign money in exchange. This publication offers a synthesis of present wisdom and examine at the biology of terrestrial molluscs.
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Additional resources for The biology of terrestrial molluscs
When the odontophore is protruded, the teeth on the radular membrane are elevated and can scrape, pierce, cut or tear the object with which they come into contact and produce small bits for swallowing. During feeding, the teeth become worn, with cusps gouged, chipped or ground down. This wear problem is solved by new rows of teeth forming at the posterior end of the radula throughout the life of the animal, while worn teeth at the anterior end are discarded continuously to be swallowed and passed out in the faeces.
M. Barker 20 Gastropods on Land Worldwide, terrestrial gastropods have been estimated to number about 35,000 extant species (Solem, 1984; van Bruggen, 1995). The gastropod groups represented in terrestrial environments are Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, Cyclophoroidea, Rissooidea, Littorinoidea, Ellobioidea, Onchidioidea, Rathouisioidea, Succineoidea and all superfamilies in the Stylommatophora. g. Truncatellidae; Rosenberg, 1989, 1996a). The vast majority of terrestrial gastropods are stylommatophoran pulmonates, probably exceeding 30,000 species.
In Helicinidae, both columellar muscles are retained, though the left is reduced in size. In Hydrocenidae, this left muscle is entirely absent. Neritopsins retain the dioecious condition, but they have attained internal fertilization. The genital duct is divisible into gonadial, renal and pallial sections. No physical connection between the gonoduct and the renal system is to be observed in extant Neritopsina. However, a short duct leaves the renal gonoduct and opens to the pallial cavity, alongside the vestigial right gill in Neritidae.