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Toxicological profiles - Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

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Sample text

The domestic fuel oil #2 is usually lighter and straight-run refined; it is used primarily for home heating and to produce diesel fuel #2. Industrial distillate is the cracked type, or a blend of both. It is used in smelting furnaces, ceramic kilns, and packaged boilers (ABB Environmental 1990). Fuel oil #2 is characterized by hydrocarbon chain lengths in the C11–C20 range, whereas diesel fuels predominantly contain a mixture of C10–C19 hydrocarbons (ATSDR 1995g). The composition consists of approximately 64% aliphatic hydrocarbons (straight chain alkanes and cycloalkanes), 1–2% unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes), and 35% aromatic hydrocarbons (including alkylbenzenes and 2-, 3-ring aromatics) (Air Force 1989).

3). EPA has proposed a modification in its test procedure for analysis of “oil and grease and total petroleum hydrocarbons" that not only overcomes the problem of using freon as a solvent, but also provides more refined separation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions (EPA 1998a). The Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) guidance of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), published in 1995, is an important document for public and private institutions that remediate petroleum contaminated sites (ASTM 1995).

Hydrocarbon numbers ranging from C15 to C50 are found in the various types of mineral oils, with the heavier distillates having higher percentages of the higher carbon number compounds (IARC 1984). Crankcase oil or motor oil may be either mineral-based or synthetic. The mineral-based oils are more widely used than the synthetic oils and may be used in automotive engines, railroad and truck diesel engines, marine equipment, jet and other aircraft engines, and most small 2- and 4-stroke engines. The mineral-based oils contain hundreds to thousands of hydrocarbon compounds, including a substantial fraction of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

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