By James N. Baraniuk, Dennis J. Shusterman
Compiled via an the world over famous staff of participants, this reference spans ways to successfully establish, diagnose, and deal with this often demanding team of rhinopathies. Addressing either well-known and disease-specific matters, this resource spans attainable reasons of nonallergic rhinitis equivalent to fumes, odors, temperature, atmospheric alterations, smoke, and different nasal irritants, whereas highlighting serious medical and medical matters.
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Extra resources for Nonallergic Rhinitis (Clinical Allergy and Immunology)
Among their morphologic specializations are desmosomes, which mediate adhesion between adjacent cells, and hemidesmosomes, which help anchor the cells to the basement FIGURE 4 Distribution of types of epithelium along the lateral nasal wall. (Hatched region) The olfactory epithelium. (Arrow) The area of the nasal valve: A, skin; B, squamous epithelium without microvilli; C, transitional epithelium; D, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with a few ciliated cells; and E, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with many ciliated cells.
In addition to crossing the anatomic barriers of the nose, the odorant molecules must have a dual solubility in lipids and water to be able to reach the olfactory receptors. To penetrate the mucus covering the olfactory mucosa, they solubilize to a certain extent in water. Lipid solubility, on the other hand, enhances their interaction with the receptor membrane of the olfactory epithelial cilia. Lastly, it is to be mentioned that olfactory sensitivity normally decreases with age as evidenced by a recent Nasal and Paranasal Sinus Anatomy and Physiology 19 longitudinal study of men and women between the ages of 19 and 95 followed over a three-year period (43).
21. Laitinen A, Partanen M, Hervonen A, et al. VIP-like immunoreactive nerves in human respiratory tract. Light and electron microscopic study. Histochemistry 1985; 82:313. 22. Baraniuk JN, Okayama M, Lundgren JD, et al. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in human nasal mucosa. J Clin Invest 1990; 86:825. 23. Wilson WR, Allansmith MR. Rapid, atraumatic method for obtaining nasal mucus samples. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1976; 85:391. 24. Andersen I, Lundqvist G, Proctor DF. Human nasal mucosal function under four controlled humidities.