By Gerhard Talsky
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Additional resources for Derivative Spectrophotometry
The fact that hydrate growth rates vary among different LMGS systems can be explained by the difference observed from methane diffusivity and wetting between LMGS and ice. This clarifies why the kinetics of the NH system is slower than in the TBME system although the methane diffusivity in LMGS is similar. The system with MCH has the slowest kinetics (nucleation time and hydrate growth rate) due to slow methane diffusivity and poor contact between MCH and ice powder. It is clear that the contact between water and guest molecules is very important in hydrate kinetics.
From an engineering standpoint the challenges are in some regards similar to those faced in the natural gas storage area and discussed above. One has to find efficient ways of contacting gas and water in order to scale up the process effectively. The above conceptual 36 Peter Englezos, John Ripmeester and Robin Susilo processes are based on a laboratory stirred vessel operating in a semi-batch mode. Andersson and Haines (2005) have used an industrial scale stirred vessel hydrate rector to produce hydrates for storage in the ocean.
2003). , 2004). , 2003). , 2003). The growth in the first stage is the formation of hydrate film covering the ice surface which occurs relatively fast due to direct contact between ice surface and the gas phase. , 2002). , 2006). The gas concentration at the bulk and on the ice surface is not equal. , 2005c). The second growth stage can be divided into two steps. The first step is mass transport from the bulk gas phase across the hydrate film, which is a slow process and considered as the rate limiting step.