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Additional info for Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology: Essentials for Respiratory Care
When this occurs, the left lung receives little or no ventilation and alveolar collapse (atelectasis) ensues (Figure 1–22A). When this condition is identified (via chest radiogram or absence of breath sounds over the left lung), the endotracheal tube should be pulled back immediately (Figure 1–22B). CHAPTER ONE THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 29 Trachea Peribronchial sheath Cricoid cartilage Cartilage Right main stem bronchus Left main stem bronchus To upper lobe To upper lobe To median lobe To lower lobe Figure 1–20.
Macrophages are believed to originate from stem cell precursors in the bone marrow. Then, as monocytes, they presumably migrate through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they move about or are embedded in the extracellular lining of the alveolar surface. There is also evidence that the alveolar macrophages reproduce within the lung (see Figure 1–26). INTERSTITIUM The alveolar-capillary clusters are surrounded, supported, and shaped by the interstitium (Figure 1–27). The interstitium is a gel-like substance composed of hyaluronic acid molecules that are held together by a weblike network of collagen fibers.
Most gas exchange occurs in the tight space area. The area around the bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs is called the loose space. fibers are found in this area. Water content in this area can increase more than 30 percent before a significant pressure change develops. The collagen in the interstitium is believed to limit alveolar distensibility. Expansion of a lung unit beyond the limits of the interstitial collagen can (1) occlude the pulmonary capillaries or (2) damage the structural framework of the collagen fibers and, subsequently, the wall of the alveoli.