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Cardiac Energetics: From Emax to Pressure-Volume Area by Martin M. LeWinter, Hiroyuki Suga, Matthew W. Watkins

By Martin M. LeWinter, Hiroyuki Suga, Matthew W. Watkins

Most of the growth in cardiac energetics in recent times has been spurred via the pressure-volume region proposal, the usual extension into energetics of previous pioneering paintings delineating the time-varying elastance framework for ventricular contraction. The booklet attracts jointly a vast spectrum of researchers - easy, utilized and scientific - having a shared curiosity within the energetics of cardiac muscle and ventricle, delivering an summary of the present country of the art.

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35: 117-126. 1974. 2. BurkhoffD. et al. Contractile strength and mechanical efficiency ofleft ventricle are enhanced by physiological overload. Am. J. Physiol. 60 (Heart. Circ. Physiol. 29): H569-H578, 1991. 3. Burkhoff D. et al. Contractility-dependent curvilinearity of end-systolic pressure-volume relations. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Heart. Circ. Physiol. 21): HI218-H1227, 1987. 4. Burkhoff D. et al. Impact of ejection on the magnitude and time course of ventricular pressure generating capacity. Am.

48 fractions ranging between 20 and 60 %. The behavior of the theoretical ventricle, shown on the right side of Fig. 2, exhibits the same property. The next test of the theory was to examine the influence of ventricular volume on the characteristics of the isovolumic pressure wavefonn. Isovolumic pressure wavefonns were recorded from real ventricles over a wide range of volumes (4). Each isovolumic pressure wavefonn was characterized by three parameters: T es' time to end systole; 7, the time constant of relaxation; and D IO , an index of the overall duration of contraction, defined as the width of the pressure wave (in milliseconds) at a level 10% of the developed pressure.

5 >. 1 0 Q) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Force [pN] Fig. 5. Steady-state force-velocity relation of a bead coated with hyperthyroid rabbit cardiac myosin. DISCUSSION In Vitro Motility Assay To date, various types of in vitro motility assay techniques have been introduced. With these techniques, we can study mechanical properties of the actomyosin interaction in a simple system under controlled conditions. As shown in this article, reconstituted actomyosin sliding retains its physiological nature. The currently used assay techniques are classified into category.

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