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Biopolymers: Lignin, Proteins, Bioactive Nanocomposites by Hyoe Hatakeyama, Tatsuko Hatakeyama (auth.), Akihiro Abe,

By Hyoe Hatakeyama, Tatsuko Hatakeyama (auth.), Akihiro Abe, Karel Dusek, Shiro Kobayashi (eds.)

Table of Contents Lignin constitution, houses, and purposes Hyoe Hatakeyama and Tatsuko Hatakeyama Tensile Mechanics of α-Helical Coil Springs Atsushi Ikai Bioactive Polymer/Hydroxyapatite (Nano)composites for Bone Tissue Regeneration Kinga Pielichowska and Stanislaw Blazewicz

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The materials and sizes are in a wide range. Part of a photo (Fig. 47a) is magnified (Fig. 47b). Cellulose fibre is clearly seen. Although the photos are not shown, wool and polyester fibers can be identified. 5 × 10−8 m2 s−1 respectively. Thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing filler content. This indicates that fiber wastes used as fillers show a reasonable insulation effect. 4 Epoxy Resins from Lignin Epoxy resins are known to be one of the important polymers, since they are used as adhesives, composites matrices, and elastomers.

Based on the molecular mass and the molecular mass distributions, a random stepwise mechanism was suggested as the mode of lignin degradation by ozone [91]. 6 Thermolysis Thermolysis of lignin was carried out in ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol (DEG) at 300 and 350◦ C and the obtained oil was characterized [92]. The thermolysis of organosolve lignin in supercritical water or in supercritical methanol has been investigated at a temperature range of 350–425◦C under pressure of 10–40 MPa [93].

A difference in oxidation products was recognized according to the portion of wood [74]. 3 Permanganate Oxidation Permanganate oxidation was introduced for the analysis of lignin structure by Freudenberg [75]. Aromatic carboxylic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenolic acid (25), vanillic acid (9), and syringic acid (18) were found by permanganate oxidation of lignins [76]. More research work was carried out on oxidation of residual lignins in sulfite and kraft pulps in order to elucidate lignin structures [77–82].

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