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An Introduction to Ultrathin Organic Films. From by Abraham Ulman

By Abraham Ulman

The advance of orientated natural monomolecular layers via the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly (SA) concepts has led researchers towards their aim of assembling person molecules into hugely ordered architectures. hence the regularly turning out to be contribution of LB and SA platforms to the chemistry and physics of skinny natural movies is well known. both famous is the trouble in maintaining thus far with the burgeoning multidisciplinary examine during this region. Dr. Ulman presents an immense survey of the to be had literature. The publication starts off with a piece on analytical instruments to develop the knowledge of the constitution and homes of monolayers and movies. Following sections talk about LB motion pictures, the instruction and houses of SA monolayers and movies, the modeling of LB and SA monolayers, and the appliance of LB and SA movies.

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A study of surface viscosity by the damped oscillator method. „ , Canal / V Monolayer > 1 ( — V . 18. A top view of the canal-type viscometer. 2/ Α Α(κ η* = - 7 τ - ( ). 22 l τ τ0 The canal-type viscometer provides a method for surface viscosity measurement [178-180]. 18 presents a top view of this viscometer. Myers and Harkins developed the following equation for the surface viscosity in this case [181], 2 _ Δ τ ^ _ 1 3 2 ' 121 (dA/dt)' where Ziyis the applied surface pressure, a is the width and / the length of the channel, and dA/dt is the rate of emergence of the monolayer from the channel.

They were able to show that the film crystallizes with time. Fromherz et al. used medium-angle x-ray scattering to calculate film thickness in LB bilayers of cadmium salts of a series of fatty acids [240]. They reported that film thickness increased linearly with chain length, with an inclination of the chain of about 15°. Jark et al. studied LB films of cadmium arachidate by means of soft x-ray diffraction [241]. They calculated the reflectivity profile from the specular reflection and the chemical composition of the films, and demonstrated excellent agreement between experimental and calculated interference patterns.

40 H. Electron Diffraction Electron diffraction is a useful technique for the determination of the in-plane structure of thin organic films. ) possible. The disadvantage, however, is that samples have to be stable in vacuo to sustain the electron beam energies. Havinga and de Wael [282] and Germer and Storks [283] studied LB films of cadmium stéarate, but since there was no theoretical analysis available at that time, these studies, although correct, are not complete. However, Russell et al. reinvestigated these monolayers and reported that the alkyl chains in LB films of cadmium stéarate are normal to the monolayer plane, and in an orthorhombic configuration [284].

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