By G.D. Aurbach (Eds.)
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This increased catabolism within the nerve ending of norepinephrine could account for the apparent increase in norepinephrine turnover at a time when electrical firing rate is reduced. , 1985a,b, 1986). Yoshimatsu et al. (1985) have reported that VMH lesions increase sympathoadrenal nerve activity. , 1984) have reported that splanchnic sympathetic activity is reduced. , 1984, 198513). In the mice with gold thioglucose-induced obesity, the responsiveness of BAT as an index of sympathetic activity is also reduced when the animals are given a cafeteria-type diet, but not when they are exposed to the cold (Hogan and Himms-Hagen, 1983).
Finally, the electrical firing rate of sympathetic nerves can provide a direct measure of sympathetic activity. The hypothesis that VMH lesions reduced sympathetic activity was originally suggested by Inoue et al. (1977131, who observed enlarged salivary glands and reduced glucagon levels in rats with hypothalamic lesions. Subsequently, the mobilization of fatty acids in animals with VMH lesions was shown to be impaired (Nishizawa and Bray, 1978; Bray and Nishizawa, 1978). A summary of the more recent data for various types of lesions using different techniques to assess sympathetic activity is presented in Table 111.
1983a,b) suppressed food intake and reduced the body weight of obese Zucker rats, while no effect was observed in lean rats in the latter experiment. The results indicate the potential for CCK therapy and suggest an increased responsiveness of the obese rat to endogenous CCK. , 1984; Praissman and Izzo, 1986),this impairment reflecting a reduction in receptor capacity possibly resulting from the hyperinsulinemia. Changes in brain CCK physiology have also been described in the genotypes (see Section III,C,4).