By Xuetong Fan, Brendan A. Niemira, Christopher J. Doona, Florence E. Feeherry, Robert B. Gravani
Microbial defense of clean Produce covers all elements of produce safeguard together with pathogen ecology, agro-management, pre-harvest and post-harvest interventions, and adversarial fiscal affects of outbreaks. This most modern version to the IFT Press ebook sequence examines the present country of the issues linked to clean produce through reviewing the hot, high-profile outbreaks linked to fresh-produce, together with the prospective internalization of pathogens via plant tissues, and realizing how human pathogens continue to exist and multiply in water, soils, and clean vegetables and fruit.
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Extra resources for Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce (Institute of Food Technologists Series)
Leafy vegetable salads collected postpreparation from 16 university restaurants in Spain yielded 26% positive for E. coli (Soriano and others 2001). C. was positive for E. coli (Thunberg and others 2002). These results suggest major diversity in E. coli incidence depending upon the size, time, and location of the study, and possibly differences in the sensitivity of methods. A study initiated by the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service in 2002 and coordinated with state and other federal agencies to survey the microbial quality of fresh produce items available at terminal markets and wholesale distribution centers continues as of 2008 (USDA-AMS-MDP 2008).
The concentration of E. coli may be a more relevant indicator of the risks associated with human consumption of a contaminated produce item. Evidence of fecal contamination as high as 50–70% on some produce items does not correlate necessarily to a higher incidence of illness, unless undetected sporadic illness is occurring. Although major outbreaks are of concern, it should be emphasized that relative to the number of consumptions of ready-to-eat produce (and tree nuts) (many billions), outbreaks are not frequent, causing an extremely low number of known total cases per total consumptions; however, some cases are sporadic probably and never linked to a food source.
Incidence in the absence of illness or outbreaks also is informative. 16 Section I. Microbial Contamination of Fresh Produce Animal Sources of Enteric Foodborne Pathogens Relevant to Produce Contamination Carriage of pathogens by food animals is a critical factor relevant to many outbreaks associated with produce, meat, milk, and other food products. Evidence for the colonization of cattle (Elder and others 2000; Hussein and Bollinger 2005; Fegan and others 2005; Low and others 2005; Dargatz and others 2003), swine (Chapman and others 1997; Jay and others 2007), sheep (Ogden and others 2005), poultry (Chapman and others 1997; Rose and others 2002; Foley and others 2008; McCrea and others 2006), and multiple species of wild animals (Ejidokun and others 2006; Hernandez and others 2003; Kirk and others 2002; Sargeant and others 1999; Pritchard and others 2001; Wetzel and LeJeune 2006) by E.