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Justice and Equity by Serge-Christophe Kolm

By Serge-Christophe Kolm

Justice and fairness is a huge paintings at the foundations of normative economics. the rules validated by means of Kolm have shaped the root of the foremost traces of analysis within the box. The primary rules are definitely the right equalities in freedom (related to non-envy) and in happiness (approximated through the effective leximin in basic utility). Kolm additionally offers similar rules comparable to basic dominance and majorities, real looking fairness, and adequacies. He analyzes completely the explanations, houses, and outcomes of those ideas. A foreword for the English-language version provides the rational necessity of equality and the idea of interpersonal comparisons.

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Equality can be of many things, such as goods or welfare, or rights, freedoms or powers of many kinds (modem social ethics is based on the principle that men are "free and equal in rights"). '' If I give a piece of bread to someone because she lacks three hundred calories, with no further reason or qualification, and I refuse to give a similar piece of bread (which I have) to someone else who also lacks three hundred calories, my behavior will be deemed unjust, arbitrary and irrational. I take it that it is unjust because it is irrational in the field of justice, and justice has to be justified.

See my 1966 essay "The Optimal Production of Social Justice," op. , which also considers maximin in goods, income, or wealth. , 1971), John Rawls proposed a maximin in "primary goods"which include income and wealth, or "difference principle," to be applied in all cases, and which is a proposal very different from practical justice. Rawls does not consider here a concept of preference or utility for a very basic reason. He proposes that justice should always be exclusively concerned with individuals' external means to ''pursue their life plans" (Footnote continued on next page) Page 8 is used in its Kantian sense of imposed by the constraints of reality which may prevent the ideal equality or make it inefficient.

These weights, and to begin with the measures of "power," "position," and "self-respect,'' have to be defined at any rate. Rawls, however, expresses an interest in fundamental preferences in ''Social Unity and Primary Goods," in Utilitarianism and Beyond (A. Sen and B. , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1982): 159-85. P. Hammond, in "Equity, Arrow's Conditions and Rawls' Difference Principle," Econometrica 44 (1976): 793-804, calls practical justice the difference principle (names may not matter) and derives it from its axiomatic assumption "in the small," which requires the interpersonal comparability of fundamental preferences in the full domain (see also Arrow, 1977, noted below, and further work of K.

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