By Jeff C. Bryan
IntroductionRadiationAtomic StructureNuclear TransformationsNuclear StabilityIonizing RadiationA organic ThreatNatural and Anthropogenic RadiationThe Chart of the NuclidesQuestionsMathematics of Radioactive DecayAtomic plenty and ordinary Atomic MassesNature of DecaySpecific ActivityDatingBranched DecayEquilibriaStatisticsQuestionsEnergy and the NucleusBinding EnergyTotal strength of DecayDecay DiagramsQuestionsApplications of Nuclear technological know-how I: energy and WeaponsNuclear PowerNuclear WeaponsNuclear ForensicsQuestionsRadioactive Decay: The Gory DetailsAlpha DecayBeta DecayPositron DecayElectron. Read more...
summary: IntroductionRadiationAtomic StructureNuclear TransformationsNuclear StabilityIonizing RadiationA organic ThreatNatural and Anthropogenic RadiationThe Chart of the NuclidesQuestionsMathematics of Radioactive DecayAtomic lots and commonplace Atomic MassesNature of DecaySpecific ActivityDatingBranched DecayEquilibriaStatisticsQuestionsEnergy and the NucleusBinding EnergyTotal power of DecayDecay DiagramsQuestionsApplications of Nuclear technology I: energy and WeaponsNuclear PowerNuclear WeaponsNuclear ForensicsQuestionsRadioactive Decay: The Gory DetailsAlpha DecayBeta DecayPositron DecayElectron
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Additional info for Introduction to Nuclear Science, Second Edition
00 g of uranium? 22 × 106 dpm In this example, the correct decay series must first be determined. 2742% abundant. The previous discussion of secular equilibria assumes that the parent does not undergo branched decay and that no branched decay happens between parent and a daughter that doesn’t also go through that daughter. 14 should bring a sigh of relief: no branches involving or between these nuclides. 2 Transient Equilibrium Transient equilibrium is like secular equilibrium in that the half-life of the parent is longer than the half-life of the daughter.
A nuclide having a magic number of protons and/or neutrons will always be stable. d. Anthropogenic radiation is more harmful than naturally occurring radiation. e. A nuclide with an N/Z ratio of exactly 1 will always be stable. f. The nucleus accounts for almost all of the mass of an atom. List some of the apprehensions you have or have had concerning ionizing radiation. What is radiation? What is ionizing radiation and where does it come from? 86 × 1018 s−1? 87 × 10 −5 m? What type of radiation is this?
5 IONIZING RADIATION The first section of this chapter discussed radiation as energy propagated through a medium, but stayed focused on EM radiation (photons). We have since learned about radioactive decay, and know that this happens in order to achieve greater nuclear stability—therefore, energy must be released as part of all nuclear decay processes. 5). In other words, the radiation needs to have enough energy to knock an electron or a proton loose from an atom. The former process is much more probable, so much so that we’ll ignore the latter.