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From the Web to the Grid and Beyond: Computing Paradigms

Born after international conflict II, large-scale experimental high-energy physics (HEP) has came across itself constrained ever for the reason that by means of on hand accelerator, detector and computing applied sciences. consequently, HEP has made major contributions to the advance of those fields, often using their strategies. the discovery of the area extensive internet at CERN is simply the best-known instance out of many. This ebook is the 1st accomplished account to track the historical past of this pioneering spirit within the box of computing applied sciences. It covers every little thing as much as and together with the present-day dealing with of the massive calls for imposed upon grid and allotted computing through full-scale LHC operations—operations that have for years concerned many hundreds of thousands of taking part contributors around the world and as a result give you the unique and normal testbed for grid computing recommendations. This ebook takes the reader on a guided travel encompassing all suitable themes, together with programming languages, software program engineering, huge databases, the internet, and grid- and cloud computing. the real factor of highbrow estate rules for disbursed software program engineering and computing is additionally addressed. Aptly, the publication closes with a visionary bankruptcy of what might lie forward. Approachable and requiring in basic terms uncomplicated figuring out of physics and laptop sciences, this e-book is meant for either schooling and examine.

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Several times, a questioner would get a very close word and oscillate between related synonyms, for example “mad” and “angry”. In the future, we will deal with this by changing the stopping criteria from guessing the exact word to guessing a synonym that cannot be distinguished Emotion Twenty Questions: Toward a Crowd-Sourced Theory of Emotions 9 by any type of explanation. However, even though it may seem that two words are closely related, there may still be some differences. For example, one player was unsure about whether “proud” and “pride” would be considered equal (native speakers of English generally feel that “pride” has a negative connotation, whereas “proud” has a positive connotation).

There were some experimental effects with hinting behavior. In after-action reviews with the players, there was anecdotal evidence of retribution type experimental effects, where one player who gives only yes/no answers without any hints will be given less hints when it is their turn to be questioner. Furthermore, there is also mercy type experimental effects, whereby more hints are given by the answerer as the questioner approaches the 20 question limit. Since our main focus was the yes/no questions we did not attempt to quantify the hinting behavior as this did not effect the collection of yes/no question/answers for emotion words.

The questioner agent needs to select questions and process yes/no type answers, but the answerer agent would need to understand an open set of questions that can be asked of any emotion, so we consider the questioner role to be easier to automate than the answerer role. Our initial work on designing a questioner agent is described in [17,18] and [18] includes an interactive demo. For automating the answerer role, the computer would need a way to understand a wide variety of questions. We have undertaken previous research on how to answer questions about dimensional representations for emotions and similarity and subsethood judgments [12,13,19], which, according to our pilot data, make up nearly 25% of the total questions.

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