By William G.I. Davenport, Matthew J. King, Mark E. Schlesinger, A.K. Biswas
This re-creation has been greatly revised and up-to-date because the third variation released in 1994. It includes a good better intensity of commercial info, focussing on how copper steel is extracted from ore and scrap, and the way this extraction might be made extra effective. smooth excessive depth smelting strategies are awarded intimately, in particular flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. huge consciousness is paid to the regulate of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. fresh advancements in electrorefining, fairly chrome steel cathode expertise are tested. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated including their effect upon optimizing mineral source usage. The e-book demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is a crucial resource of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality controls can be mentioned and the e-book contains a major part on extraction economics. each one bankruptcy is by means of a precis of ideas formerly defined and gives recommended extra examining and references.
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Extra resources for Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, 4th edition
22 Santiago 28 ExtractiveMetallurgy of Copper The average grade of ore being extracted from any given mine is determined by the 'cut-off' grade (% Cu) which separates 'ore' from 'waste'. Material with less than the 'cut-off' grade (when combined with all the ore being extracted) cannot be profitably treated for copper recovery. It is 'waste'. It is sent to waste dumps rather than to concentrating or leaching. 'Cut-off' grade depends on mining and extraction costs and copper selling price. If, for example, copper price rises and costs are constant, it may become profitable to treat lower grade m a t e r i a l - in which case 'cut-off' grade (and average ore grade) decrease.
It entails: (a) crushing and grinding the ore to a size where its Cu mineral grains are divided from its non-Cu-mineral grains (b) physical separation of Cu minerals from non-Cu minerals by froth flotation to form Cu rich concentrate and Cu barren 'tailing'. Fig. 1 shows a typical concentrator flowsheet with the above steps. 3 give industrial data. Copper concentrators typically treat 10 000 to 100 000 tonnes of ore per day, depending on the rate their mines produce ore. u'x'~XN~ rusher ~~. 05% Cu) Oversize (+150 ~m) Fig.
Overloading might become a problem if, for example, Concentrating Copper Ores 41 the ball mill receives tough, large particles which require extensive grinding to achieve the small particle size needed by flotation. The simplest mass flow control scheme is to use hydrocyclone sump pulp level to adjust ore feed rate to the grinding plant. If, for example, pulp level sensor (L) detects that the pulp level is rising (due to tougher ore and more hydrocyclone recycle), it automatically slows the plant's input ore feed conveyor.