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CentOS System Administration Essentials by Andrew Mallett

By Andrew Mallett

CentOS is commonly revered as the most important and versatile Linux distribution, and it may be used as an internet server, dossier server, FTP server, area server, or a multirole resolution. it truly is designed to address the extra challenging wishes of commercial functions reminiscent of community and approach management, database administration, and net prone. CentOS is self-sufficient and speedy whereas operating, with the additional advantage of worldwide attractiveness as a number of the world's internet servers run on it.

This e-book not just concentrates at the fundamentals, but in addition vitamins your latest wisdom on topic components which are vital within the firm industry, reminiscent of listing prone, safeguard configuration administration, and web-based structure. via the tip of this publication, it is possible for you to to regulate an firm Linux community fascinated by management-centralized configuration, person administration, and filesystem improvements via masking every little thing from the most recent filesystem advances with BTRFS via to studying in regards to the new internet server at the block—Nginx.

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CentOS is a community-based firm category working procedure and this e-book will offer a chain of functional options that may not simply enable you to set up and continue CentOS as a server, yet to discover this recognized Linux distribution with the purpose of tackling many universal matters by way of delivering a few methods of the exchange which will simplify the duty of creating a server.

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What you'll examine from this book

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• construction networks, domain names and enforcing the Apache internet server.


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I think it is time that we investigate this a little further. When a new directory is created, it is initiated with the link count being equal to two; in other words, each new directory has to have two names that point to it. This will consist of the directory name and the file named . (just the period by itself). In fact, in a new directory, there are always two new files that are created along with the directory: the . and .. files. • The . file represents the directory itself • The .. file represents the parent directory [ 34 ] Chapter 3 Try this yourself; it is easier to understand and might prevent you from going too dotty over this: $ cd $ mkdir newdir $ ls -a newdir #Note the two files $ ls -ld newdir # Note the hard link count of 2 The following screenshot shows the new directory and the listing of the two hidden files therein.

Expanding a BTRFS filesystem We may well be running out of space within the /data structure; we are not but we can imagine. If we were using an LVM structure, we would have to run several commands to expand the existing filesystem across a new partition or disk. This would be the process in LVMs: Volume management in the old way requires us to execute the following commands: # pvcreate /dev/sdb6 # vgextend vg1 /dev/sdb6 # lvextend -L+1000M /dev/vg1/data_lv # resize2fs /dev/vg1/data Volume management with BTRFS As we can see, there are four commands to be executed, all with a generous sprinkling of syntax that will try to trip us up.

Using the ls command with the option for the long listing, -l, will display the hard link count. The option, -i, will display the inode number of the file. The inode number of both files will be the same. As hard links share the same inode number, the source and target file must be on the same filesystem. An inode is an entry within a single filesystem. Symbolic links Symbolic links, or soft links as they are sometimes referred to, are completely separate files whose data points to another filename; as such, they can cross the filesystem boundaries and be a little more useful than hard links.

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