By Lieping Chen
The immune procedure has advanced largely to allow organisms to withstand microbial an infection. Microorganisms have lengthy been used as experimental instruments by means of immunologists, and the learn of the immune responses to viruses, disorder and micro organism has contributed a lot to our realizing of easy immunological mechanisms. the main useful and medical purposes for trying to comprehend the immunology of infections and sickness revolves round the CD137 and CD137/41BB receptor and ligand molecules. those fundamental antibodies encompass new pathway and play principal roles within the regulate of immune responses. in recent times, this pathway is rising as one for an important objectives for manipulation of immune responses for ailment analysis and therapy.
Dr. Chen stumbled on the CD-137 and B7H1 molecules in 1999 and his lab lately pointed out and defined a brand new member of the real B7 family members of immune procedure costimulatory molecules. he's the main specialist within the box. This ebook will disguise all features of CD137/4-1BB pathway examine from microbiology, infectious disorder, molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics to immune responses and capability functions within the prognosis and remedy of human illnesses together with cancers, autoimmune ailments, viral an infection and transplantation rejection.
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Additional info for CD137 Pathway: Immunology and Diseases
2002 in vitro Trg. , 2003 Def. , 2002 Bone marrow cells M Induction of proliferation. , 2000 The degree of monocyte activation by CD137 ligand signaling is dosedependent. , 1998) and reducing the CD137 signal strength also delays adherence and morphological changes (unpublished observation). The process of monocytes adherence is at least in vitro associated with a cellular activation. However, activation induced by CD137 ligand signaling is not merely a consequence of the monocytes starting to adhere, since activation can also be induced through CD137 ligand when the cells are cultured under non-adherent conditions.
J. , 165, 1743–1749. E. (2002). Role of 4-1BB (CD137) in the functional activation of cord blood. Blood, 100, 3253 and 3260. S. (1999). 4-1BB costimulation promotes human T cell adhesion to fibronectin. Cell. , 192, 13–21. R. (1992). Rapamycin selectively inhibits interleukin-2 activation of p70 S6 kinase. Nature, 358, 70–73. S. (2002). New insights into the role of 4-1BB in immune response: Beyond CD8+ T cells. , 23, 378–380. S. (2000). 4-1BB: Still in the midst of darkness. Mol. Cells, 30, 119–126.
This implies that sCD137 ligand only inhibits reverse signaling through CD137 ligand while initiating signaling through CD137. 2. Bidirectional Signaling in Other Receptor/Ligand Systems Bidirectional signal transduction is not a rare phenomenon. It has been documented for several other members of the TNF and TNFR families, Eph receptors and ephrins, integrins and cell adhesion molecules, and B7 and its receptors. Among the members of the TNF family reverse signaling has been demonstrated for membrane-integrated TNF, CD27 ligand, CD30 ligand, CD40 ligand, CD95 ligand, CD137 ligand, OX40 ligand, LIGHT, TRAIL, and TRANCE.