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Bionics for the Evil Genius: 25 Build-it-Yourself Projects by Newton Braga

By Newton Braga

The best-selling Evil Genius layout presents hobbyists with a enjoyable and cheap technique to study bionics through 25 entire tasks. as soon as the focal point of renowned 70's television, bionics (integrating mechanical and digital fabrics with dwelling topic) are getting used greater than ever to interchange or fix physiological or anatomical services or problems.

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2 Int. 5 GBW of the amplifier normalized to ωs=2*π*fs Fig. 2 Building-block specifications of the loop filter Block Sampling speed Input signal Loop filter Integrators OTA1 OTA2 OTA3 Specification fs Vi n Input impedance Phase margin Total harmonic distortion (THD) Phase shift DC gain (ADC ) GBW HD3 Vnoise DC gain (ADC ) GBW Vnoise gm HD3 Value 4 GHz 2Vp p 1k 80ı @0:5fs 80 dBc 90ı @0:5fs >35 dB 8 GHz 80 dBc 80 dBc >35 dB 6 GHz 80 dBc 0:5 –2 tunable 30 dBc integrators require an approximate phase shift of 90ı at 0:5fs .

11), the HD3 tone is proportional to ˇ and for ˇ > 0:1 the SNDR also starts reducing, which implies that self mixing of the quantization noise due to the non-linear integrator increases the in-band noise of the modulator. 1. Based on the system-level simulations, the SNR of the loop filter (SNRLF ) is set to 80 dB. Both the input impedance of the first integrator and its amplifier contribute to the noise. For a differential implementation, the SNRLF is expressed as: SNRLF D 10 log10 ! 13) where v2n;Ri n D 4kTRi n BW , v2n;amp D 4kTReq BW , and Req D 2=3gm [13].

The output of the last integrator acts as the output of the loop filter thus driving the quantizer. 5 Normalized frequency (f/fs) [−] Fig. 5 fp (Hz) x 109 Fig. 5 z-tp (dac) z-tp (q) ELDdac ELDq Fig. 9 shows the SQNR loss as a function of the ADC of the last integrator’s amplifier shown in Fig. 8. Due to the limited DC gain of the amplifier, the SQNR reduces. 10a shows the maximum output of the integrator stages. The output of the first and the second integrator increases while the feedback of the modulator keeps the output of the loop filter at the same level when compared to the ideal implementation.

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