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Atlas of time-temperature diagrams for irons and steels by George F. Vander Voort

By George F. Vander Voort

The main entire number of time-temperature diagrams for irons and steels ever amassed. among this quantity and its spouse, Atlas of Time Temperature Diagrams for Nonferrous Alloys, you will find the main complete number of time-temperature diagrams ever accrued. Containing either normal curves and out-of-print and difficult-to-find info, those Atlases signify a superb around the world attempt, with contributions from specialists in 14 nations. Time-temperature diagrams express how metals reply to heating and cooling, permitting you to foretell the habit and understand previously the series of heating and cooling steps to enhance the specified houses. those collections are a useful source for any fabrics engineer either Collections comprise: Easy-to-Read Diagrams Isothermal transformation non-stop cooling transformation Time-temperature precipitation Time-temperature embrittlement Time-temperature ordering fabrics integrated within the Irons and Steels quantity: Low-carbon excessive power Low Alloy Stainless (Maraging, austenitic, ferritic, duplex) Chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon Structural Quenched and tempered Spring and Rail High-temperature creep-resistant software and die Eutectoid, hypereutectoid carbon Deep hardening Titanium bearing Irons: grey forged, malleable, white, white forged, ductile.

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Portions of these lines are often shown as dashed lines to indicate a much higher degree of uncertainty. Thus, all portions of lines extending to the left of the 2-second coordinate are dashlines because for times less than about 2 seconds reliable and accurate measurements were not possible by the methods used. In this connection, it should be recognized that the 1-T diagram is designed to represent the overall pattern of transformation in a particular composition and particularly in regions in which transformation occurs 6 Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams rapidly should not be regarded as always being a summary of a complete set of highly precise quantitative measurements.

It extends from near As down to below Ms. A specimen Quenched below M, will transform, at least in part, to martensite during cooling and hence strictly isothermal transformation of all of the austenite is impossible below Ms. The portion of the austenite which reaches any temperature below M, will in time transform isothermally to what for all practical purposes may be regarded as bainite. The time required is indicated by the portion of the ending line extended below the M, horizontal--this portion of the ending line is shown dashed because some uncertainty exists as to its correct location, reliable measurement being relatively difficult in this region.

A tempering cycle such as usually follows the quenching operation is illustrated schematically merely to complete the picture. The I-T diagram has no bearing on the tempering operation unless the austenite-to-martensite transformation is incomplete, as sometimes happens. In this case, retained austenite usually transforms during tempering to the transformation product indicated by the I-T diagram. Martempering MARTEMPERING CUSTOMARY QUENCHING AND TEMPERING ~ TEMPERED MARTENSITE TIME - LOG SCALE Fig.

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