By Douglas Summerville
The majority of desktops in use this day are encapsulated inside different platforms. unlike general-purpose desktops that run an never-ending number of software program, those embedded desktops are usually programmed for a truly particular, low-level and infrequently mundane goal. Low-end microcontrollers, costing as low as one buck, are frequently hired by way of engineers in designs that make the most of just a small fraction of the processing strength of the gadget since it is both less costly than determining an application-specific half or simply because programmability deals customized performance no longer another way to be had. Embedded platforms Interfacing for Engineers utilizing the Freescale HCS08 Microcontroller is a two-part publication meant to supply an creation to and software program interfacing for engineers. development from a complete advent of primary computing innovations, the publication compatible for a primary direction in desktop association for electric or desktop engineering scholars with a minimum historical past in electronic common sense and programming. moreover, this publication could be worthwhile as a reference for engineers new to the Freescale HCS08 family members of microcontrollers. The HCS08 processor structure utilized in the booklet is comparatively uncomplicated to benefit, strong sufficient to use in the direction of a wide-range of interfacing projects, and comprises breadboard prototyping in a laboratory utilizing freely on hand and reasonably cheap instruments. partially II: electronic and Analog Interfacing, and software program interfacing strategies are brought. The emphasis of this paintings is on strong and software program engineering layout ideas. equipment drivers are built illustrating using general-purpose and special-purpose electronic I/O interfaces, analog interfaces, serial interfaces and real-time I/O processing. The facet of every interface is defined and electric requisites and similar matters are thought of. the 1st a part of the e-book presents the programming abilities essential to enforce the software program during this half. desk of Contents: advent to the MC9S08QG4/8 / Analog enter / Serial conversation / Real-Time I/O Processing
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Additional resources for Embedded Systems Interfacing for Engineers using the Freescale HCS08 Microcontroller II: Digital and Analog Hardware Interfacing
4 shows an example of a driver for a single LED connected in the active-low configuration to pin PTB3. This driver code assumes that PTBD, PTBDD, PTBPE and PTBSE have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 ;-------------------------------------------------------------------;Driver for a active-low LED circuit interfaced on PTB3. 4: Driver for Active Low LED Circuit. been defined. Four driver interface routines are provided. INIT_LED configures the pin on PTB3 to be an output and calls LED_OFF interface routine to ensure the LED always starts in the off state.
Unlike the GPIO function, however, the KBI can be a pull-up or pull-down resistor, depending on the polarity of the bit in the KBIES register. Thus, if PTAPE bit 0 is set (port 40 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE MC9S08QG4/8 HARDWARE a pin 0 pull-up enabled) and the polarity of KBI pin 0 is configured as active high, an internal pull-down resistor will be enabled instead of a pull-up resistor. Like the IRQ pin, interrupts should be globally masked before configuring the KBI module to prevent a false interrupt from being triggered during configuration.
Room temperature. The output high voltage characteristic shows the difference in voltage VOH from its ideal value VDD for the sourcing configuration, while the output low voltage characteristic shows the value of VOL for the sinking configuration. Thus, both plots characterize the deviation from the ideal output voltage level. Clearly, as the load current increases in both configurations, the output voltage deviates increasingly from its ideal. A model of this relationship is an ideal voltage source with a series resistor.