By S. Mahdi Kashmiri
This publication describes an alternate approach to knowing exact on-chip frequency references in regular CMOS tactics. this system exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, i.e. the speed at which warmth diffuses via a silicon substrate. this can be the 1st publication describing the layout of such electrothermal frequency references. It contains the mandatory concept, supported by means of functional realizations that in achieving inaccuracies as little as 0.1% and hence show the feasibility of this procedure. The e-book additionally comprises numerous circuit and system-level strategies to the precision circuit layout demanding situations encountered in the course of the layout of such frequency references.
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Additional resources for Electrothermal Frequency References in Standard CMOS
Using the square-law MOS model, the drain current of M1 is determined by: I1 ¼ μn Cox W1 VR2 pﬃﬃﬃ 2 : 2 L1 n À 1 m Band-gap Temp. 13) m Relaxation Oscillator Fig. 17 Simplified block diagram of the temperature compensated mobility based frequency reference Mobility based current reference Non-linear Mapping Ndiv ÷N Temp. 7 Mobility-Based Frequency References 37 Vr1 chop Charge B VB OA2 comparator Vr2 Charge A + – out + - VA OA1 + - CA R0 M3 chop! M1 CB MA MB I0=VR /R0 VA Vr1 VB Vr2 out Charge A Charge B Chop Tosc Fig.
6 More detailed circuit diagram of a Wien-bridge RC oscillator output impedance, current bleeding has been applied. The gain-boosted cascode transistors further increase the output impedance such that it does not interfere with the Wien-bridge network’s transfer function. To minimize excess phase shift, the cascode transistors are minimum size devices. 2 V supply. With R ¼ 50kΩ, and C ¼ 530fF, it oscillates at about 6 MHz. 9%, with a temperature coefficient of about 86 ppm/ C. Another Wien-bridge oscillator based on  was proposed in , where the RC oscillator circuit is combined with a low drop out voltage regulator in order to achieve a supply dependency of 104 ppm/V.
In: IEEE symposium on integrated circuits and systems design, pp 181–186 49. Vilas Boas A et al (2004) A temperature compensated digitally trimmable on-chip IC oscillator with low voltage inhibit capability. In: IEEE international symposium on circuits and systems, ISCAS, pp 501–504 50. Choe K et al (2009) A precision relaxation oscillator with a self-clocked offset-cancellation scheme for implantable biomedical SoCs. In: IEEE international solid-state circuits conference, ISSCC, pp 402–403 51.