By Chad Mitcham
During the interval 1949 to 1979, communist China used to be formally pursuing a coverage of self-sufficiency, and the U.S. and its allies have been formally enforcing a exchange embargo opposed to communist China. in spite of the fact that, this publication, in accordance with huge unique examine, demonstrates that China used to be hugely depending on Western/Japanese grain imports. The textual content indicates that teams lobbying on behalf of Western/Japanese grain manufacturers and comparable industries had effectively chanced on methods of by-passing the embargo. This ebook charts the advanced photograph of the way monetary kin among China, the West and Japan constructed in those years.
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Additional resources for China's Economic Relations with the West and Japan, 1949-1979: Grain, Trade and Diplomacy
52 British Prime Minister Eden was unable to convince the Eisenhower administration to agree to a relaxation of the trade controls during his visit to Washington in late January. 53 Meanwhile, between November 1955 and April 1956, the Chinese purchased 30,000–45,000 tonnes of Canadian wheat (and a small amount of French flour) Embargo and grain imbalances 17 from the Polish government. 55 However, China’s grain distribution problem remained unresolved. January–June 1956 Grain rationing, introduced in August 1955, reduced China’s urban grain sales to a more reasonable level.
2 PRC’s annual cereal imports, 1950–7 (in tonnes; trade grain weight and % of total grain imports) Year Total cereals 1950 1951 1952 1953 67,973 Wheat Rice Maize 57,915 (85%) — — — — — 102 14,834 13,818 (93%) (Argentina) 1954 30,481 27,332 — (89%) (19,500 ϩ Argentina) (2,000 ϩ Canada) (2,000 ϩ Australia) 1955 185,124 21,947 139,402 (12%) (200 Bulgaria) (86%) (20,000 ϩ Canadian (800 Hong Kong) via Poland) (138,000 ϩ Burma) 1956 151,594 22,963 116,541 (15%) (77%) (Canadian via Poland) (1,000 Bulgaria) (86,000 ϩ Burma) 1957 169,477 50,701 107,700 (30%) (Canadian and (64%) (5,000 Bulgaria) French from 1957–8 (25,000 Cambodia) account) (81,000 ϩ Burma) — — — — — 12,193 (7%) (2,000 Bulgaria) (10,193 Cambodia) 11,075 (5%) (4,000 Bulgaria) (7,075 Cambodia) Sources: Table prepared by author from: CIRECO, op.
Grain producers again resisted government procurement by hoarding grain. 21 By mid-1954, as Mao pressed for more rapid domestic development, Chen Yun and Zhou Enlai realized that China’s grain distribution system was becoming much less ‘rational’. If this trend continued, the Chinese government might only avert disaster by substantially increasing domestic grain production and foreign grain imports. Although consumers in the grain-deficient North demanded wheat, Mao remained opposed to spending extra funds to buy significant quantities of foreign grain.