By Eric Clayton
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Additional info for Agriculture, Poverty and Freedom in Developing Countries
But the market system is not very good as far as the 'less able' are concerned. In agriculture, therefore, development strategies must be reinforced by policies which encourage employment creation, reduce the constraints which afflict 'target groups' (where these can be identified and readily located) and which extend the uni-modal farm structurewhere bi-modalism prevails. This would necessitate government interference to generate more employment than would be created solely by the free market system; to redistribute land, etc.
But, in a uni-modal peasant farm situation, reforms to achieve an equal distribution of land will be counter-productive, a proposition which will be argued later. To return again to the word equity and to urge that its use be discontinued, it can be seen that its use in this discussion would only create confusion. To the collectivist, an equitable distribution of income implies levelling down, whereas to the non-collectivist it means levelling up. To the collectivist, an equitable distribution of land implies an equal land distribution in all cases, whereas to the non-collectivist it refers to the sort of land distribution usually found in peasant agriculture.
That is, whether they involve a trade-off between production and social welfare. Mahbub ul Haq asserts, that basic needs is not exclusively a welfare concept. Indeed one of the major conclusions of recent World Bank Studies (World Development Report, 1980) is that sufficient empirical evidence exists to demonstrate that improved education and health often make a major contribution to increased productivity. 33 The evidence comes from an unexplained table" gIvmg estimates of increases in farm output due to four years' primary education from several single year studies.