By Wranik, Tanja
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Extra resources for PERSONALITY UNDER STRESS WHO GETS ANGRY AND WHY INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE APPRAISAL AND EM
In addition, we can already predict that explanatory style will most likely be “activated” when measured after a stressful situation (T2) and after receiving results on a test (T3). Based on the types of emotions reported in Folkman and Lazarus, and the results by Mikulincer (1988), we also expect that explanatory style will “not be activated” before the stressful situation (T1). If causal search can be successfully stimulated by our induction procedure, then we can make several predictions based on the literature review.
1982), which was also confirmed by numerous empirical studies (Chang, 2001; Seligman, 1998). Other authors found that attributional styles changed linearly over time, influenced by – for example - changes in marital satisfaction within each spouse (Karney & Bradbury, 2000). This argument is also in line with cognitive theories of depression (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979; Cottraux, 1998), which propose that individuals make internal, stable, and global attributions for negative events when they are in a phase of depression, but that this “maladaptive” attributional style disappears when they are no longer depressed (Persons & Rao, 1985).
Because none of the participants was able to solve the puzzle and they were all given a low score on the task, we therefore assumed that they would also experience the situation as obstructive (especially if they stated that it was important for them to do well on the test). In addition, the experimenter watched the participants during the social intelligence task on the video to insure that they would arrive at a point of disagreement and conflict concerning correct placement of the blocks. ” at T2 as a subjective indication of goal-obstruction.