By A. Meleshevich
This publication conducts a comparative research of political associations and develops rigorous equipment appropriate for cross-national longitudinal research. An exam of political occasion platforms in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, and Ukraine indicates awesome modifications of levels and dynamics of political institutionalization within the 5 international locations.
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Extra resources for Party Systems in Post-Soviet Countries: A Comparative Study of Political Institutionalization in the Baltic States, Russia, and Ukraine
Along with political parties, public movements and electoral alliances, which had no strict procedures of individual membership, were also permitted to nominate lists of candidates. The latter types of contestants did not have “the common attributes of a party, such as a comprehensive program, a developed organizational network, and a disciplined system of membership, but [were] simply groups wanting to be represented in the parliament” (Bungs, 1993a). 4 percent, 15 seats); the Harmony for Latvia/Revival for the Economy election association (12 percent, 13 seats), etc.
There was another significant difference between the 1990 electoral campaign for republican Soviets in Lithuania and the same year elections in the other four countries under analysis. Although at the time Lithuanian political parties were in their embryonic stage, they were allowed to contest elections under their names. Among others, nine representatives of the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (LSDP) and two from the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party (LKDP) became members of the legislature in 1990.
The larger the percentage of independents, the less institutionalized the party system is. In countries that employ a proportional representation system, an assessment of electoral lists of political parties participating in elections is a useful way to evaluate the level of political autonomy. In a system with a low degree of institutionalization, parties tend to include in their lists many candidates “who had never had previous careers within the parti[es]” (Panebianco, 1988, 56). This is done for a variety of reasons.