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Additional info for OLEDs for lighting
The supply chain for OLED manufacturing is relatively long and dispersed internationally. The supply chain begins with the OLED materials developers and manufacturers. Also included in the chain are suppliers of related materials including substrates, getters, encapsulants, and more. While some manufacturers develop OLED processing equipment internally, others support independent process equipment manufacturers, or combine both approaches. Technology and intellectual property (IP) providers are present at every step of the supply chain.
7 Emission spectra and performance of tandem white OLEDs Moreover, in a display application the increased luminance efficiency of tandem OLEDs can yield increased display operating lifetime since the pixels can be operated at reduced current density for a given brightness. 13 illustrates the improvement in operational stability obtained using tandem OLEDs. When operated at a constant current to achieve an initial luminance of 1000 nits, single stack OLEDs exhibit an extrapolated time to half luminance of > 50,000 while a 3 stack tandem OLED achieves > 110,000 hours owing principally to the reduction in drive current density provided through the use of multiple tandem stacks.
The challenges in developing flexible OLED displays start at the very beginning with the choice of a suitable substrate. A number of polymer films as well as thin stainless steel foil have been evaluated as potential flexible display substrates. At present, no single substrate under evaluation rises to the top. For instance, plastic films lack dimensional stability while the surface planarity (smoothness) of stainless steel foil has been lacking to date. While there are many challenges for flexible OLED displays ranging from substrate choice to a lack of manufacturing tools, nonetheless there is great interest and some interesting progress being reported.