By George E. Totten, Lin Xie, Kiyoshi Funatani
Describes modeling and simulation concepts for alloy choice and mechanical estate layout. Illustrates designs for varied elements and fastening structures. Considers tribology and the layout of floor engineered fabrics for slicing instrument functions.
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Additional info for Modeling and Simulation for Material Selection and Mechanical Design
48), although it is not clear which is the dominant factor. For quantitative evaluation of each of these effects, conducting an experiment similar to the work done by Umemoto et al. is necessary, although it is difficult to conduct such an experiment with regard to low carbon steels because of their rapid transformation. E. Precipitation Model Precipitation of carbides and=or nitrides in austenite phase could affect recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth after hot deformation, and transformation during cooling.
Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 18 Comparison of the calculated results with the observed ones. 0041%N. consisting of ferrite, pearlite, and=or bainite. A recent study confirmed this result with regard to the accelerated cooled steels of a substantially ferritic transformation structure . Therefore, the determination of a more general relationship between strength and transformation temperature applicable to the individual microconstituent in a mixed microstructure is required.
The next equation can be applied for the case where the cooling rate changes during cooling. On the assumption that the shape of ferrite grains is spherical, the average ferrite grain size after cooling, da, has a relation with a fraction transformed to ferrite and the number of ferrite grains and the relation is expressed as 4p da 3 ð41Þ XF ¼ N 3 2 where N is the number of ferrite grains in the unit volume and XF is the volume fraction of ferrite. The equation can be transformed into 6XF 1=3 da ¼ ð42Þ pN Since XF can be obtained from the transformation model explained above, the calculation of ferrite grain size can be carried out if we know Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.