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Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System (1st Edition) by Donald A. Neumann

By Donald A. Neumann

The hyperlink among constitution and serve as of the musculoskeletal approach is clarified and defined during this whole advisor to medical kinesiology. Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal procedure is the main complete, research-based, reader-friendly textual content on kinesiology ever released. superbly and abundantly illustrated in two-color, this dynamic, available source offers advanced medical details in an method designed to attract the reader in and discover the elemental ideas of kinesiology of the trunk and extremities in addition to in terms of joints, muscle tissue, and biomechanics.

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Example text

Ions that have a net positive charge are called cations, while those that have a net negative charge are called anions. Because of their ability to conduct electricity when dissolved in water, the ionic forms of the seven mineral elements are collectively referred to as electrolytes. The process of ion formation, known as ionization, can occur in single atoms or in atoms that are covalently linked in molecules. Within molecules two commonly encountered groups of atoms that undergo ionization are the carboxyl group (OCOOH) and the amino group (ONH2).

Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportions represented by the general formula Cn(H2O)n, where n is any whole number. It is from this formula that the class of molecules gets its name, carbohydrate—water-containing (hydrated) carbon atoms. Linked to most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group: H C OH It is the presence of numerous hydroxyl groups that makes carbohydrates readily soluble in water. 33 Widmaier−Raff−Strang−Erskine: Human Physiology, Ninth Edition 34 CHAPTER TWO 2.

Com/widmaier9 hydrogen ion concentration, the greater the acidity. The hydrogen ion concentration is often expressed in terms of the pH of a solution, which is defined as the negative logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration. The brackets around the symbol for the hydrogen ion in the following formula indicate concentration: pH ϭ Ϫlog [Hϩ] Thus, a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 10Ϫ7 mol/L has a pH of 7, whereas a more acidic solution with a higher Hϩ concentration of 10Ϫ6 mol/L has a lower pH of 6.

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