By Bert Edström
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Additional info for Japan and the challenge of human security: the founding of a new policy 1995-2003
Macrae, ‘Analysis and synthesis’, p. 5. ’, paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Honolulu, 3 March 2005, p. click_key=2 (downloaded 21 January 2007). 38 UNDP, Human Development Report 1994, p. 24. 40 Later, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan voiced his opinion that ‘No shift in the way we think or act is more critical than that of putting people at the centre of everything we do. ’41 This observation leads to the answer to Baldwin’s first question – the security referent is people.
A new generation of violence and misery was added to older conflicts stemming from decolonization and the Cold War. While some conflicts were shortlived, others developed into prolonged armed conflicts. In 1999, Ogata Sadako, at the time the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), assessed the situation: ‘Although inter-state wars have not disappeared – think of the Horn of Africa, or, in a less direct fashion, of the Great Lakes region – conflicts today tend to be internal. ’15 Increasingly, the front lines of war changed with the proliferation of armed conflicts occurring more frequently within state borders than across them.
95. This was also the situation in Japan for a start, when the meaning of human security was described differently in governmental reports as pointed out in Yusuke Dan, ‘A Brief Review of Human Security’, Human Security 4 (1999/2000), pp. 325f. 85 Lodgaard, ‘Human Security’, p. 13. 86 Astri Suhrke, ‘Human Security and the Interests of States’, Security Dialogue 30 (1999), p. 265. 35 JAPAN’S POST-WAR FOREIGN POLICY: BETWEEN NONINVOLVEMENT AND PARTICIPATION Laying the Foundations The period which is nowadays designated ‘post-war’ is labelled with what must be said to be a misnomer.