By J. Nichols
Accomplished reference grammar of Ingush, a language of the Nakh department of the Nakh-Daghestanian or East Caucasian language family members of the imperative Caucasus (southern Russia). Ingush is remarkable for its complicated phonology, prosody together with minimum tone method, complicated morphology of either nouns and verbs, clause chaining, long-distance reflexivization, and severe measure of syntactic ergativity.
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Extra info for Ingush Grammar
6. 2. 7). Both je 'or' and the deictic prefixes might be regarded as special clitics, but I analyze them simply as prosodically unaccented words and not as atonic. Enclitics are indubitable clitics and firmly atonic, and their schwa has higher, more centralized, and less distinct vocalism. The enclitic chaining/coordinating conjunction ='a usually has an elided vowel, but whatever vowel quality can be heard after the glottal stop is at least as high as IPA [\]. The schwa in the other coordinating enclitic =ji is more audible and sounds identical to /i/ [I].
Diphthongs. I regard the items in this section as diphthongs and not as sequences of vowel plus sonorant as this is consistent with the syllable canon and possible consonant clusters of Ingush. 1. /ei/. Most tokens of Cyrillic are actually pronounced /ei/. 2. /ai/, though infrequent, is in contrast with /ei/. The known words with /ai/ are: vai lai cwaitt Waishet 'we' (inclusive) 'slave, servant' '11' 'Aisha' 1 The known minimal and near-minimal pairs for /ai/ and /ei/ are: 14 vaina veina 'we (inclusive, dative) [v wØjn˙] 15 'having seen him' (converb) [vejn˙] lai lei 'servant' 'snow' (genitive) Waishet weishaa 'Aisha' 'chewed' (< woush- 'chew') 1 1 [jo-o-oqa] is ordinarily /joaqqa/.
The nodes in the network are not so much individuals as households (or individuals as heads of households). A person's social standing depends on his or her courtesy and hospitality, on good judgment, and on financial competence and ability to maintain a wellordered household. Proper hospitality, solvency, and the order of the household reflect the wife's work, so a man is dependent on his wife for a large part of his social standing. Stinting hospitality, an extramarital affair however discreet, indelicate language in public, or slack housekeeping on her part can tarnish his social standing.