By Charles Nunn, Sonia Altizer
Fresh development within the box of flora and fauna affliction ecology demonstrates that infectious affliction performs an important position within the lives of untamed animals. Parasites and pathogens might be specially vital for social animals within which excessive touch between contributors raises the possibility of sickness unfold. As the best studied mammalian teams, primates provide a different chance to envision how complicated behaviours (including social association) effect the chance of buying infectious ailments, and the defences utilized by animals to prevent an infection. This ebook explores the correlates of affliction probability in primates, together with not just social and mating behaviour but additionally nutrition, habitat use, lifestyles historical past, geography and phylogeny. The authors study how a middle set of host and parasite qualities impression styles of parasitism at 3 degrees of organic association: between participants, between populations, and throughout species. an important objective is to synthesize, for the 1st time, 4 disparate parts of analysis: primate behavioural ecology, parasite biology, natural world epidemiology, and the behavioural and immune defences hired through animals to counter infectious disease.Throughout, the authors supply an summary of the amazing variety of infectious brokers present in wild primate populations. extra chapters ponder how wisdom of infectious illnesses in wild primates can tell efforts thinking about primate conservation and human overall healthiness. extra mostly, this e-book identifies infectious illness as a major frontier in our realizing of primate behaviour and ecology. It highlights destiny demanding situations for trying out the hyperlinks among host and parasite characteristics, together with hypotheses for the consequences of sickness on primate social and mating structures.
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Extra resources for Infectious Diseases In Primates; Behavior, Ecology And Evolution (Osee)
Murowski). (c) Lung mite (Pneumonyssus simicola) within a bronchiolar structure of a captive-bred primate, shown as the darkly stained object in the center of the image (Courtesy of K. Mätz-Rensing, German Primate Center). (d) Pentastomid larvae (Armillifer armillatus) appear as small c-shaped bodies (in the lower left portion of the image) on the peritoneum and mesentery of an African monkey. Reprinted from Reeder, M. M. and P. E. S. Palmer, 2000, The Imaging of Tropical Diseases, with kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media.
Receptor molecules that aid in recognizing surface proteins on host cell membranes cover the virus outer jacket (Prescott et al. 2001). Once viruses invade a host cell, 30 • Diversity and characteristics of primate parasites (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. 4 Viruses reported from free-living primates. (a) Transmission electron micrograph of Ebola virus, an RNA virus in the family Filoviridae (Reproduced from Public Health Image Library 2004. Image credit: CDC/C. Goldsmith). (b) Severe rash on the right arm of a rhesus monkey nine days after infection by Ebola virus (Reproduced from Geisbert et al.
Similar demographic shifts were documented in an epidemic in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), in which all six adult males in a troop died, while only one-half of 22 females died (Barrett and Henzi 1998). These females subsequently attempted to fuse with another group. Finally, a study on savanna baboons (Papio anubis) by Sapolsky and Share (2004) revealed that demographic shifts resulting from epidemics can have profound, longterm consequences on behavior within groups. Following an outbreak of bovine tuberculosis that the baboons acquired from eating contaminated meat in a garbage dump, the more aggressive males in this group were more likely to succumb to infection because they were better able defend this resource, and thus were more likely to be exposed to tuberculosis through infected meat.