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In Defiance of Oligarchy: The Tory Party 1714-60 by Linda Colley

By Linda Colley

In English background the years among 1714 and 1760 are unusual in methods. they've got acquired purely scant consciousness from historians, and so they witnessed the exclusion of the tory region of the nation's landed elite from all important in addition to from leading neighborhood workplaces. during this publication Linda Colley explores the destiny of the tory celebration which has ruled either Parliament and the constituencies all through of the reigns of William III and Anne. She refutes any uncomplicated id of the occasion with cryto-Jacobitism, and explains either the ideological, electoral, and organisational components which enabled it to outlive less than the early Hanoverians, and the conditions which avoided it from regaining overall or restricted entry to the political centre. Like canaries down a mine, the proscribed tories also are used to gauge the ambience in their high-and low-political atmosphere. by way of reading the tory party's continual if unavailing parliamentary lobbies and opinion, Dr Colley brings into query a few of the present orthodoxies approximately England's political balance lower than George I and George II, and casts doubt at the repidity and novelty of political and social advancements thereafter.

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83 Butler's lists illustrate again the deficiencies of French and Stuart archives: they may show that after 1714 some leading tories corresponded and occasionally plotted with Jacobite agents; they do not prove that the bulk of the tory parliamentary party knew of these contacts or endorsed them. So what evidence are we to use? Cruickshanks' assertion that tory family papers are 'non-existent' for the reigns of George I and George II is certainly incorrect, and her argument that the sparsity of tory papers proves that a majority of tories had something to hide is certainly tendentious, but Jacobite tories were unlikely to preserve written evidence of their treason.

Lord Herbert's insensitivity to the tories' demands for parity of treatment with neighbouring whigs may be contrasted with Archbishop Herring's insistence in Yorkshire that all but avowed Jacobites should be consulted on local defence measures. His political discernment resulted in marked county unanimity, and the tory Members for York, Godfrey Wentworth and George Fox, were amongst the gentry and merchants of both parties who subsequently agreed on a Loyal Address 'in which each pledged himself to the other to defend the established order' and to raise £no ooo.

1 thought we could not have a better opportunity for endeavouring to remove this mistake, than that of introducing and promoting this Bill; but, I am afraid, that by what the ministers have taken care to add to it, in the other House, our endeavours will be rendered unsuccessful; for from the opposition that will probably be made to these additions, they will take a new occasion to represent us as Jacobites, which is, in truth, the same with saying, that all those who are not ready to give up the liberties of their country, are friends to the Pretender.

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