By George E. Dieter, S. Lee Semiatin, Howard A. Kuhn
Textual content is an replace and enlargement of a prior ebook, 'Workability checking out Techniques,' released by means of the yank Society for Metals, c1984. contains contributions describing numerous workability assessments. For practitioners. DLC: Metals--Formability--Testing.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Workability and Process Design
Gladman, B. D McIvor, Effect of Second-Phase Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Steel, Iron and Steel Institute, 1971, p 78 14. L. D. Lahoti, The Occurrence of Shear Bands in Isothermal Hot Forging, Metall. Trans. A, Vol 13, 1982, p 275–288 15. J. A. E. , Vol 24, 1976, p 911 16. C. Mataya and G. Krauss, A Test to Evaluate Flow Localization During Forging, J. Appl. , Vol 2, 1981, p 28–37 17. N. J. Wray, Investigation of the Intermediate Temperature Ductility Minimum in Metals, Trans. ASM, Vol 54, 1961, p 117 18.
The mechanisms of hot working are rather complex and vary considerably from alloy to alloy. First, one needs to understand some terminology. Those processes that occur during deformation are called dynamic processes, while those that occur between intervals of deformation or after deformation is completed are called static processes. The two dynamic processes involved in hot working are dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization. Dynamic recovery results from the annihilation of dislocations due to ease of cross slip, climb, and dislocation unpinning at the hot working temperature.
In dynamic recrystallization dislocation, annihilation only occurs when the dislocation density reaches such high levels that strain-free recrystallized grains are nucleated. Therefore, the rate of strain hardening is high until recrystallization occurs (Fig. 16, curve b). However, when it begins, the flow stress drops rapidly as recrystallization progresses. Materials that experience rapid recovery and thus do not undergo dynamic recrystallization are body-centered cubic iron; beta-titanium alloys; hexagonal metals such as zirconium; and high stacking-fault energy, face-centered cubic metals such as aluminum.