By Diane Perrons
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Extra info for Globalization and Social Change: People and Places in the New Economy
Part II deals with more concrete illustrations, focusing on how people are connected through these divisions at an international and regional level. It also focuses on the social implications of the feminization of employment and considers the extent to which such changes can be said to have equalized gender relations. Part III 27 ANALYSING GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE focuses on people and places in the new economy more empirically, looking at its uneven architecture and the widening spatial and social divisions between the ‘superstar’ regions and the rest as well as within the superstar regions where some of the greatest inequalities are found.
In relation to child and elder care, some provision is made for the destitute but the remainder buy care or rely on unpaid care within the family. Thus within liberal market economies the majority of the population are differentiated through their market earning capacity while those dependent on social welfare will be more or less equal with each other, but they will be equally poor, generating wide social divisions. Esping-Andersen’s (1990, 1999) work relates mainly to social policy but his welfare regime types correspond to the regulatory frameworks identiﬁed by Danielle Leborgne and Alain Lipietz (1991), which are deﬁned according to the degree to which relationships between the state, ﬁrms and employees are negotiated or determined through the market.
See Castells (1997) and Chapter 4. See Chant (2002). See Carnoy (2000). See Ehrenrich and Hochschild (2003). In 1999 the gender pay gap for Denmark was 11 per cent, and for Sweden 12 per cent. The gender employment rate gap for both countries was less than 5 per cent (EC 2001). See Lundberg and Berntsson (2002). There is a huge literature providing models of gender relations some of which provide gendered interpretations, critiques and alternatives to the welfare regimes perspective; see for example Connell (2002); Duncan (1996); Hirdman (1990); Lewis (1997, 2001); Walby (1997).