By Martyn Housden, David J. Smith
The years from 1918 to 1945 stay significant to eu historical past. It used to be a breath-taking time within which the superior and extremely worst attributes of Mankind have been on demonstrate. within the euphoria of peace which the tip of the 1st international warfare, the Baltic States emerged as self reliant forces at the international degree, engaging in exciting experiments in nationwide and transnational governance. Later, following fiscal cave in and within the face of emerging totalitarianism between even Europe's such a lot cultured countries, Baltic groups succumbed to nationalism too. in the course of wartime, Baltic peoples turned either sufferers and, occasionally, victimisers. eventually their victimhood lasted until eventually the tip of the chilly struggle, yielding outcomes nonetheless discernible initially of the 21st century. Taking the interval 1918 to 1945 as pivotal, this number of essays examines many of the key subject matters in Baltic historical past as they're rising at the present time. those comprise appreciations of identification, autonomy and the rights of nationwide minorities; the standard and social foundations of foreign safety; and the significance of historic reminiscence to renowned and political identities.
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17. Meysztowicz, 1973, p. 117. 18. Korwin-Milewski, 1913, p. 31. 19. Futurus [Skirmunt], 1913; Futurus [Skirmunt], 1907. 20. Szpoper, 2009, p. 180. 21. Korwin-Milewski, 1993, 132, 147, 321, 335, 336; Weeks, 1999, pp. 347– 69. 22. , Dziennik, vol. 62, 66. 23. Maksimaitis, 1996, p. 190. 24. Quoted from: Sirutavičius, 1996, p. 272. 25. Herbaczewski, 1905, p. 11; Herbaczewski, 1907, p. 155. 26. Futurus [K. Skirmunt], 1907, p. 33. 27. Herbaczewski, 1905, 11; Sirutavičius, 1996, pp. 278–79. The “Old” and “New” Lithuanians 45 28.
103. Similarly―albeit in a less pronounced manner―Jussila, 2004, p. 130. 4. See Kalleinen, 1994, pp. 118–24; furthermore Schweitzer, 1990, passim; Hösch, 1990, passim. 5. Thus, for example, Steinheil and his understanding of Finland‟s “fundamental laws” are dealt with only briefly in the following important works: Jussila, 1969, pp. 92, 135 and 137–40; Jussila, 2004, pp. 129–31, 197 and 242–43; Kirby, 2008, pp. 76 and 84. 6. The following explanations are mainly based on archival materials that are to be found in the Finnish National Archives (Kansallisarkisto), Helsinki, as well as in several Russian state archives in Petersburg and Moscow.
32. Herbaczewski, 1905, p. 29. 33. Skirmuntaitė, 1913. 34. Bičiūnas, 1933, p. 28. As J. Sawickis shows, in 1927 Römer referred to himself in official documents as a Lithuanian pole (Polak litewski): Sawicki,1998, p. 143 35. M. Römer, Dziennik, vol. 28, LMAB, F. 138–2254, l. 240. 36. K. Buchowski has shown that conservative-traditionalist krajowcy, who sometimes referred to themselves as “Old Lithuanians”, used this term „to stress thereby their connection with the Young Lithuanian Movement‟ (Buchowski, 2006, p.