By Guy Hermet, Alain Rouquie, Richard Rose
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Additional info for Elections Without Choice
However, these mechanisms can be perpetuated, especially in their modern form, only if they are periodically brought up to date. Thus, the election is an important time in the clientelist system. It is the means of affirming the loyalties that make the elimination of electoral competition possible. The electoral exchange reinvigorates the vertical solidarities that otherwise lose their edge. If the notable, the machine or the party and its parallel hierarchies guarantees a minimum of social protection, the election enables the client, by paying his debt, to deserve a patronal largesse once again.
Clan, ethnic, village or province consciousness sweeps the nascent class consciousness aside. Domination is reaffirmed by it. TABLE II. I From Clientelism to Intervention by Governing Power Traditional rural sociery or sociery complex with authoritarian contexts Transition to mass, secularised socitry Conservative brealcdowns and authoritarian modemisation Primary, vertical Categorical, horizontal Secondary, vertical (neoor pseudocorporative) Social control Clientelist Impersonal, objective inftuence,consent Coercive Elections De facto non-competitive Competitive De jure non-competitive;intervention by the governing power Social ships relation- C/imtelist Control and Authoritarian Contexts 35 The importance can be illustrated by certain accidents of political developments that affect modernising traditional societies.
These individualist demobilising favours keep fundamental problems in society hidden, and channel a gratitude towards the master and power-holders that is very useful for the maintenance of the status quo. It is in fact in social relations that clientelist control of the vote has its most significant effects. In the political use of social domination, the clientelist vote articulates the fundamental configuration of society through the institution of universal suffrage. As a mechanism of control, patronage and clientele relationships ensure a certain social peace.