By M Ferry
В книге представлено влияние обработки на свойства металлов, в том числе описываются фазовые переходы, типы кинетических реакций, перенос и межфазные явления. Рассмотрены вопросы моделирования и прогнозирования данных процессов и приобретаемых свойств металлов. Также рассмотрено практическое применение данного исследования для повышения качества сталелитейного производства и улучшения свойств стали.
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Extra resources for Direct strip casting of metals and alloys
19) where k4 is a constant and p an exponent that is dependent on the type of model. 5 to 3 (Flemings 1974). 3 Interface stability in pure materials In the case of a pure metat solidification is controlled by the rate of extraction of the latent heat of fusion away from the solid-liquid interface. Taking the simple case of unidirectional solidification, the interface moves at a velocity, R ( = dx / dt ) into the liquid. ) and GL (= (dT/dx)L) are the temperature gradients in the solid and liquid, respectively.
6. The free energy barrier for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation showing the critical nucleus radius, adapted from Porter and Easterling (1992). 17) where k2 has a similar form to kl in Eq. 10 and depends on the critical nucleus size and surface energy. It is clear that Eq. 17 is almost identical to Eq. 10 for homogeneous nucleation, with the important difference being the reduction in the free energy barrier by an amount that is dependent on (). 7 shows the rate of nucleation in a low viscosity metal as a function of undercooling for a range of wetting angles.
4). This time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram shows that a sufficiently high rate of cooling (dashed cooling curve) will suppress crystallization. ~, ................................................................................. 4. Effect of temperature on the time required for nucleation in a viscous liquid showing the critical cooling rate needed to suppress crystallization. 2 Heterogeneous nucleation It is well-known that nucleation is usually heterogeneous and that metals and most other liquids rarely undercool by more than a few degrees before beginning to crystallize.