By Kenneth A. Walters
Containing 350 illustrations, tables, and equations and overlaying AAPS/FDA instructions for the experimentation and research of in vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption, this reference presents complete insurance of the advance, practise, and alertness of topical and transdermal healing structures. well-known overseas specialists speak about the bioequivalence of dermatological and transdermal dosage types. They discover the biochemistry and therapy of dermis illnesses, the constitution and serve as of the surface, antagonistic dermal responses to drug formulations, mechanisms of drug delivery via barrier membranes, and strategies for measuring and modulating percutaneous permeation.
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Extra info for Dermatological and Transdermal Formulations (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Series of Textbooks and Monographs)
The exact function of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in the stratum corneum intercellular lamellae are unknown, although it is likely that cholesterol acts to reduce fluidity of the ceramide alkyl chains. Cholesterol and ceramides are present at almost equimolar proportions throughout the stratum corneum. Norle´n et al. (99) obtained values of 37%mol for ceramides and 32%mol for cholesterol using human forearm skin (interestingly, the molar distribution of cholesterol esters and free fatty acids was also similar at 15%mol and 16%mol, respectively).
1989). Transepidermal water loss: the signal for recovery of barrier structure and function. J Lipid Res 30:323–334. Ghadially R, Brown BE, Sequeira–Martin SM, Feingold KR, Elias PM. (1995) The aged epidermal permeability barrier: structural, functional, and lipid biochemical abnormalities in humans and a senescent murine model. J Clin Invest 95:2281–2290. 38 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. Walters and Roberts Menon GK, Feingold KR, Moser AH, Brown BE, Elias PM.
A similar response to barrier perturbation occurs following treatment of the skin with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (137), but the magnitude of the response depends on the severity of Structure and Function of Skin 27 Figure 11 During hydration the lacunae formed by degrading desmosomes provide an obvious site for water pooling and, during prolonged exposure to water, lateral expansion of the lacunae occurs through polar-head regions of the intercellular lipids. Although the expansion of the individual lacunae may lead to a continuous lacunar system, this process does not appear to disrupt the lipid lamellae.