By Leonardo Morlino
Drawing on a scientific, empirical research of 4 key Southern ecu nations, Portugal, Spain, Greece, and Italy, this insightful learn identifies a number of key facets of democratic consolidation: consensus and legitimization, social gathering procedure and celebration association, and the ways that prepared and non-organized pursuits are regarding events and the associations of nation. This e-book bargains the 1st large, comparative research of consolidation and concern in those nations, and contours a wealth of up to date info on social gathering agencies, curiosity institutions, the media, and public opinion. even if truly targeting Southern Europe, the author's findings are tremendous appropriate for knowing the politics of a number of different areas, together with japanese Europe, Latin the United States, and South East Asia.
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Additional info for Democracy between Consolidation and Crisis: Parties, Groups, and Citizens in Southern Europe (Oxford Studies in Democratization)
To a large extent, this is a classic question for this kind of research. The answers can be found by referring to preceding historical experiences, well rooted in the political culture of that country, as well as to the concrete working of the regime itself. 61 The concrete functioning of a democracy signiﬁes, at the mass level, the ‘perceived’ efﬁcacy of that regime. It is reasonable to assume that the satisfaction of basic demands through speciﬁc governmental actions can induce people to form, maintain, or strengthen their positive attitudes toward the democratic regime.
Consolidation is neither structuration nor encapsulation. The ﬁrst process is the key feature of the installation phase. In fact, structuration may be conceived of as the process of building new political structures. 42 The second concept, encapsulation, was coined by Etzioni (1964) with speciﬁc reference to international conﬂict. It represents a very interesting way of indicating the process of control and containment of conﬂicts. However, the term touches on both installation and consolidation, as far as it refers to both the construction and acceptance or compliance with those democratic rules aimed at the containment and control of internal conﬂicts.
28 THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK of acceptance of institutions; furthermore, the distinction between legitimation of democracy tout court and that of a speciﬁc democratic regime is also needed; besides, it would be useful to determine the instances and time span of that acceptance vis-à-vis the analysed phases, including transition and installation; ﬁnally, it is necessary to take the analysis to greater depth, to go beyond legitimation and seek the explanations for those attitudes and behaviours. 52 Although the deﬁnition of legitimacy given above is acceptable and useful, it is worth considering a more attenuated version of the acceptance of the institutions that is often much closer to concrete reality at a mass level.