By Martin G. Richards
Ken Livingstone used to be elected Mayor of London on a platform that integrated a congestion cost for principal London, a coverage that turned fact on 17 February 2003. Richards makes use of his event as Director of a bliog?2.5 million govt congestion charging research, as a type of who created the scheme Livingstone followed and as consultant to the London meeting, to supply a serious checklist of the advent of the London Congestion cost, and of its implications for congestion charging somewhere else.
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Extra info for Congestion Charging in London: The Policy and the Politics
31 linked to form a cordon around an area, so that drivers are charged each time they enter (and/or leave) the area; or to form a series of cells, with a charge being incurred each time a vehicle moves from one cell to another; or to create ‘screen lines’, such as along a river, with drivers charged each time they cross it. In principle, charges can vary by time of day, day of week and vehicle type, as well as from point to point or between cordons, or screenlines. Although the basic concept of point-based charging is fairly easy for users to understand, if the charging scheme is to satisfy the Smeed requirement that ‘the method should be simple for road users to understand’, there are practical limits to the complexity of the system.
The effect of this on car use can be reduced by allowing employees to ‘parking cash out’, by taking a cash sum in lieu of a free parking space (Shoup and Willson, 1992), which has become a statutory requirement for larger employers in those parts of California with more serious air quality conditions (see California Environmental Protection Agency, 2002; Shoup, 1997). , Newbery, 1995) and others, many of whom have argued that roads should be ﬁnanced by direct user charges that meet (at least some of) the costs of road use, including congestion.
To avoid this, it must become possible to use a single unit for schemes and toll roads operated by different authorities.