By Achilles J. Pappano PhD, Withrow Gil Wier PhD
Cardiovascular body structure provides an excellent knowing of the way the cardiovascular approach features in either overall healthiness and disorder. excellent to your systems-based curriculum, this identify within the Mosby body structure Monograph sequence explains how the most recent innovations follow to real-life medical situations.
- Get transparent, actual, and up to date assurance of the body structure of the cardiovascular system.
- grasp the fabric simply with pursuits first and foremost of every bankruptcy self-study questions, summaries, and key terms and ideas and a multiple-choice evaluate examination to aid prep for USMLEs.
- grab the newest recommendations in vascular, molecular, and mobile biology as they practice to cardiovascular functionality, because of molecular commentaries in every one chapter.
- follow info to scientific events due to scientific commentaries and highlighted medical vignettes all through.
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Extra info for Cardiovascular Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series
Explain various cardiac rhythm disturbances. 3. Explain the basis of reentry. THE HEART GENERATES ITS OWN PACEMAKING ACTIVITY The nervous system controls various aspects of cardiac function, including the frequency at which the heart beats and the vigor of each contraction. However, cardiac function certainly does not require intact nervous pathways. Indeed, a patient with a completely denervated heart (a cardiac transplant recipient) can adapt well to stressful situations. Automaticity (the ability of the heart to initiate its own beat) and rhythmicity (the regularity of pacemaking activity) are properties intrinsic to cardiac tissue.
Therefore, impulses pass more readily longitudinally (isotropic) than laterally from cell to cell (anisotropic). Gap junction channels are composed of proteins called connexins that form electrical connections between cells. Connexins vary in their composition and in their tissue distribution within the heart. Each cell synthesizes a hemichannel consisting of six connexons arranged like barrel staves. The hemichannel is transported to the gap junction locus on the cell membrane, where it docks with a hemichannel from an adjacent cell to form an ion channel.
When the Ca++ channels open, Ca++ enters the cell throughout the plateau because the intracellular Ca++ concentration is much less than the extracellular Ca++ concentration (see Table 2-1). The Ca++ that enters the myocardial cell during the plateau is involved in excitation-contraction coupling, as described in Chapter 4. Neurohumoral factors may influence gCa. An increase in gCa by catecholamines, such as isoproterenol and norepinephrine, is probably the principal mechanism by which catecholamines enhance cardiac muscle contractility.