By Gregory G. Schwartz, Michael W. Weiner (auth.), Saul Schaefer M.D., Robert S. Balaban Ph.D. (eds.)
The program of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to the cardiovascular procedure is a comparatively new phenomenon. Its skill to noninvasively study myocardial metabolism has resulted in its use to reply to easy questions in animal types of standard and diseased myocardium. Extension of those investigations into the area of human myocardial metabolism has been made attainable through the arrival of really high-field magnets with spectroscopy functions and enough bore dimensions to permit human reports. whereas ongoing and destiny experiences promise to augment our knowing of myocardial metabolism, their luck will, partially, depend upon a radical realizing of the technical and biologic features of cardiovascular MRS, in addition to the present country of study within the many parts encompassed via this self-discipline.
it really is with idea that the current monograph has been written. The association and content material may still lend this booklet to either the start reader who's yet now not familiar with cardiovascular MRS, in addition to to the energetic investigator who needs to consult a quantity that offers with the numerous problems with this box in a concise yet whole demeanour. The monograph is based with a basic assessment of the sphere, by way of a bit addressing the technical problems with cardiovascular MRS. the following part is dedicated to biologic problems with either general and irregular myocardial metabolism, essentially dedicated to investigations utilising phosphorus-31. this can be through a piece facing extra really expert matters, in most cases related to different nuclei similar to protons, carbon, and sodium. eventually, the scientific purposes of cardiovascular MRS are addressed.
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Additional info for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Phosphate metabolite imaging and concentration measurements in human heart by nuclear magnetic resonance. Magn Reson Med 14:425434. 3. Schaefer S, Gober ]R, Schwartz GG, Twieg DB, Weiner MW, Massie B (1990). In vivo phosphorus-31 spectroscopic imaging in patients with global myocardial disease. Am] CardioI65:1154-116l. 4. Bottomley PA (1985). Noninvasive study of high-energy phosphate metabolism in human heart by depth-resolved 31P NMR spectro- scopy. Science 229:769-772. 5. Bottomley P A, Herfkens R], Smith LS, Bashore TM (1987).
5 T, that the intrinsic NMR signal-to-noise ratio measured in the absence of system electronic and coil (but not patient) noise increases linearly with magnetic field strength, as shown for example in figure 3-2 for the human torso [23}' While published spectra are limi ted to 1. 5 T clinical spectrometer with rf mixed up co the 4-T NMR frequencies, and hooked co an Oxford Instruments 4-T, 1-m bore magnet [24, 25}. Figure 3-3 is an example of a onedimensional (l-D) phase-encoded data set at 4 T as a function of depth in 1-cm coronal slices 29 through the chest and heart of a normal volunteer acquired with a surface coil in under five minutes.
333: 531-544. Kantor HL, Briggs RW, Metz KR, Balaban RS (1986). Gated In VIVO examination of cardiac metabolites with 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. Am] Physiol 251:H171-H175. Bottomley PA, Hardy C], Weiss RG (1991). Correcting human heart 31p NMR spectra for partial saturation. ] Magn Reson 95:341-355. 4. LOCALIZATION METHODS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY Gerald B. Matson The region of tissue giving rise to the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) signals must be known, or better yet, controlled, in order to properly interpret the results.