By Victoria C. Stead
Across Melanesia, the ways that humans hook up with land are being remodeled via methods of modernization globalization, the development of states and international locations, practices and imaginaries of improvement, the legacies of colonialism, and the complexities of postcolonial encounters. Melanesian peoples have gotten landowners, Stead argues, either within the feel that those approaches of switch compel different types of estate relatives, and within the experience that landowner and customized landowner turn into identities to be wielded opposed to the encroachment of either nation and capital. In areas the place well-known types of land tenure have lengthy been dominant, deeply intertwined with senses of self and relationships with others, land now turns into a crucible upon which social kin, energy, and tradition are reconfigured and reimagined.
Employing a multi-sited ethnographic strategy, changing into Landowners explores those differences to land and lifestyles as they spread throughout Melanesian international locations. The chapters circulation among coasts and inland mountain levels, among city facilities and rural villages, telling the tales of individuals and locations who're regularly located and specific yet who additionally proportion strong commonalities of expertise. those comprise a subsistence-based group formed through the legacies of colonialism and profession in distant Timor-Leste, villagers in Papua New Guinea resisting a mining operation and the govt. brokers assisting it, an city East Timorese payment resisting eviction via the geographical region its citizens was hoping could signify them within the post-independence period, and other people and teams in either international locations who're suffering for, with, and occasionally opposed to the formal codification in their claims to land and position. In each one of those situations, known and glossy different types of connection to land are propelled into advanced and dynamic configurations, theorized the following in an cutting edge means as entanglements of customized and modernity.
Moving among a number of websites, scales, and sorts of collectivity, changing into Landowners unearths entanglements as areas of deep ambivalence. right here, constructions of strength are destabilized in ways in which can lend themselves to the diminishing of neighborhood autonomy within the face of the country and capital. while, the destabilization of strength additionally creates new probabilities for the reassertion of that autonomy, and of the generic kinds of connection to land within which it's grounded.
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Extra resources for Becoming Landowners: Entanglements of Custom and Modernity in Papua New Guinea and Timor-Leste
Before his release on parole, at an advanced stage of the illness, directions were given for his removal to St Kitts. Before the Court, he argued that his expulsion to St Kitts would condemn him to spend his remaining days in isolation and destitution, 70. See p. 27. 71. Case No. 146/1996/767/964. 40 European Court of Human Rights case-law on social security with neither accommodation nor resources. The termination of the medical treatment he was receiving would hasten his death since no similar medical treatment was available in St Kitts.
96. The execution of the European Court of Human Rights’ judgments in the field of social security, S. Günter Nagel, Revue de droit sanitaire et sociale, n° 2, pp. 204-215, Paris 2007. 97. Application No. 29303/95. 55 SOCIAL SECURITY AS A HUMAN RIGHT In its judgment of 28 June 2005 in Zedník v. the Czech Republic98 – concerning the Czech authorities’ withdrawal of the applicant’s partial invalidity allowance – the ECHR held that the Czech Constitutional Court’s interpretation of a procedural requirement had prevented examination of the merits of the applicant’s case and so had infringed the right to effective protection by the courts.
Greece and other cases, ResDH (2004) 81). 86 Enforcing judgments of the Court implies a duty to deliver three things: just satisfaction, individual measures and general measures. The Court orders payment of just satisfaction, as appropriate, under Article 41 of the Convention. This normally takes the form of a sum of money to make good pecuniary and non-pecuniary damage and to cover costs. Interest for late payment is added to the sum after expiry of a time limit fixed by the Court. The just-satisfaction award is detailed in the judgment and is directly enforceable.