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Ban of the Bori: Demons and Demon-Dancing in West and North by A. J. N. (Arthur John Newman) Tremearne

By A. J. N. (Arthur John Newman) Tremearne

Absolutely illustrated. Chapters comprise: The starting place of the Hausa Colonies in North Africa; Totemism and King-killing; own Enhancement and get dressed; Habitations and household existence; delivery and Puberty; demise and the After-Life; Magic. The Saints and the Magicians; Magic within the House—Love Charms; Magic within the House—Self-Preservation; Magic within the Fields—^Agriculture, and so forth; Magic within the Fields—Hunting, and so forth; Superstitions and Omens; Bori - The Black Spirits; Bori - The Temples and the Sect, and extra.

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A certain chief of Hadejia, Gariba, was bom characteristics with teeth, and he put to death nothing ; such a monstrosity few of his subjects for in the case of ! The trunk and limbs in a many which was only to be expected are not purposely deformed except trifling particulars. In Nigeria, a child may have a band of string or beads which has gradually become tight because of the growth of the wearer, but sooner or removed or enlarged, it is not intended to cause any permanent deformation. In North Africa, however, later this is THE BAN OF THE BORI 6o the string is discarded, for the children have to wear The gripping of the catch of the sandal-clog worn between the great and second toes produces a clothes.

The soul of the totem is identified with the bori, as also the soul of the clan. g. Magiro) body may be used (a) : man ; and ; (c) in order to sub(b) possibly as an so that, if faithful, as charms. hardly necessary, perhaps, to point out that the development would not be found in every clan, and It full is a younger and stronger is that even where it was, sooner or later a strong king would object to experiencing the fate of his predecessors. sacrificing some of his subjects or prisoners of war, By he would appease the wrath of the bori, and would at the same time divest himself of a part of his special divine attributes by allowing the priests to perform the rites of ; the guardiap bori as well as those pertaining to the other spirits, they would be enriched and so bought off and, gradually, the would become again merely a guardian spirit unconnected with either the totem or the priestly king.

Millet (guinea-corn) was ground from early morning, and noon the flour thus produced was, by mixing it with water, made into fura, and drunk. Then a black bull was killed, if available, or a black he-goat, and some of the at c THE BAN OF THE BORI 34 blood was smeared upon the trunk, the rest being led by a channel into the roots of the tree ; but there was no The flesh was eaten, the was also chief priest) chief (who The head was buried. and four other priests donned the hide in turn,* and they and the other worshippers danced round the tree (all the people were there, men, women and children) and the On the fourth day another bull was flesh was eaten.

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