By Joseph R. Davis, S. L. Semiatin, American Society for Metals
ASM instruction manual, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging
Provides an in-depth evaluation of a couple of approaches lately brought or that experience come into popularity equivalent to radial, rotary (orbital), precision, powder, and isothermal/hot-die forging. Plus superplastic sheet forming, and abrasive waterjet and laser slicing. New fabrics during this booklet (containing 1,200 illustrations and 250 tables) relates to the improvement of thermomechanical processing, relatively in regards to aerospace alloys, and the improvement of strategies and checks to figure out steel workability/formability relationships.
Read Online or Download ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging (#06360G) PDF
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Additional resources for ASM Metals Handbook, Vol. 14: Forming and Forging (#06360G)
Advantages and Limitations The principal advantages of hydraulic presses include: • • Pressure can be changed as desired at any point in the stroke by adjusting the pressure control valve Deformation rate can be controlled or varied during the stroke if required. This is especially important • • • when forging metals that are susceptible to rupture at high deformation rates Split dies can be used to make parts with such features as offset flanges, projections, and backdraft, which would be difficult or impossible to incorporate into hammer forgings When excessive heat transfer from the hot workpiece to the dies is not a problem or can be eliminated, the gentle squeezing action of a hydraulic press results in lower maintenance costs and increased die life because of less shock as compared to other types of forging equipment Maximum press force can be limited to protect tooling Some of the disadvantages of hydraulic presses are: • • • The initial cost of a hydraulic press is higher than that of an equivalent mechanical press The action of a hydraulic press is slower than that of a mechanical press The slower action of a hydraulic press increases contact time between the dies and the workpiece.
3 MN (1500 tonf) eccentric press. The four-bar press, which was originally developed for sheet metal forming and cold extrusion, is well suited to extrusion-type forming operations, in which a nearly constant load is required over a long stroke. Fig. ) drive (solid curve). Source: Ref 7 Screw Presses The screw press uses a friction, gear, electric, or hydraulic drive to accelerate the flywheel and the screw assembly, and it converts the angular kinetic energy into the linear energy of the slide or ram.
With this circuit, it is possible to obtain a rapid advance stroke, followed by preselected first and second pressing speeds. If necessary, the maximum force of the press can be used at the end of the second pressing stroke with no limits on dwell time. The same circuit also provides for a slow pullout speed and can actuate ejectors and strippers at selected intervals during the return stroke. Advantages and Limitations The principal advantages of hydraulic presses include: • • Pressure can be changed as desired at any point in the stroke by adjusting the pressure control valve Deformation rate can be controlled or varied during the stroke if required.