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# ASM Handbook: Materials Characterization by George M. Crankovic

By George M. Crankovic

This quantity will give you an simply understood reference ebook on sleek analytical suggestions. With over 950 illustrations and ninety five tables, the emphasis is at the sensible instead of theoretical, describing the commonest purposes and boundaries of every approach.

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Extra resources for ASM Handbook: Materials Characterization

Example text

Crushers can range from the familiar mortar and pestle to specially designed mills. They must be made of noncontaminating materials harder than the materials processed to minimize abrasion and should have chemical resistivity to the samples. The fineness of grinding required will depend on the heterogeneity of the sample, but fine grinding is ordinarily preferred. Sieving may be performed at intermediate stages to separate fines and coarses that are later reground. When the coarses differ in composition from the fines, each may be ground using a different process, then combined to compose the analytical sample.

The relative costs of the operation are 5:4:1. 10. 09. The cost = (11 × 5)+ (1 × 4) + (1 × 1) = 60 on the relative scale. 14. Calculating Statistical Sampling Uncertainties. Sampling is most important when significant heterogeneity or segregation exists. When x , s, Ks, A, and B are known exactly, it is easy to calculate the statistical sampling uncertainty and to determine the number and size of the samples needed for a given precision. If, as is more usual, these quantities are known only approximately or not at all, preliminary samples and measurements must be taken, and from these more precise sampling procedures developed.

The nature of the sample may dictate the procedure. Whenever significant volatile components could be lost, the latter approach may be necessary. Homogenization or blending procedures may be required in subsampling and field sampling. Because it may sometimes be difficult or impossible to blend in the field, final homogenization is left to laboratory personnel. Liquid samples may require only mixing before analysis. However, if immiscible components of differing densities are present, blending may be required continuously during subsampling.