By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is suitable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, in addition to for working towards engineers short of a state of the art reference on information converters. It discusses numerous analog-to-digital conversion rules, together with sampling, quantization, reference new release, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This publication provides an outline of the cutting-edge during this box and specializes in problems with optimizing accuracy and velocity, whereas lowering the ability level.
This new, 3rd version emphasizes novel calibration innovations, the categorical standards of latest structures, the results of 22-nm expertise and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this version comprise extra, new routines, solved examples to introduce all key, new innovations and warnings, feedback and tricks, from a practitioner's point of view, at any place acceptable. significant historical past info and functional counsel, from designing a PCB, to lay-out features, to trade-offs on approach point, supplement the dialogue of easy ideas, making this e-book a precious reference for the skilled engineer.
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Additional resources for Analog-to-Digital Conversion
These practical considerations often lead to a sample rate of at least 2:5–3 the bandwidth. 2 Sampling Limits 17 Alias filtering at the input of a conversion chain is necessary to remove unwanted components in the spectrum that may fold back into the signal after sampling. Also at the output side of the conversion chain an alias filter can be necessary as the sampled data format contains high-frequency components, Fig. 11. During reconstruction, see Sect. 4, some filtering will occur, but mostly additional filtering is needed to avoid problems.
16 2 Sampling In-swing F( ) pass stop F( ) Phase distortion f(t) Frequency domain Time response Fig. 10 The mathematical description of the relation between frequency domain and time domain implies that a sharp-limited frequency response generates a ringing response in the time domain fs N IN Low pass filter 0 f Vout DAC OUT fs = 1/ Ts 3fs 2fs frequency Fig. 11 Before using the result of the reconstruction the higher harmonic bands must be removed. In this example it is assumed that the reconstruction provides no filtering The definition of a filter for alias suppression requires to look at pass-band, rejection but also at signal ringing.
When the connection between the capacitors is broken, a new kT=C sampling event happens. This time the noise between the top plates will be equivalent to the noise of the series connection of C1 and C2 , which equals 2kT=C1 if the capacitors are equal. The voltage over every capacitor is kT=C1 and both voltages are correlated, but with opposite sign. After stacking these two opposing noise contributions will cancel! And the signal-to-noise ratio will indeed be the same. C1 C1 + - C2 + - C1 + - C2 + - + C2 + V+vnoise,C1 V+vnoise,C2 - Fig.