By T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski
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Extra info for Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications
E. below about 800°C, (lb) will go too slowly and a part of the carbon will not be available as a gaseous fuel. The producer gas reaction yields a theoretical product 67 per cent N 2 and 33 per cent CO accompanied in practice by a little C 0 2 and hydrogen, methane and tarry matter in quantities depending on the nature of the coal or coke gasified. Reaction (1) is strongly exothermic so that the producer runs very hot. The gases come off at up to 750°C and are often used immediately as in open-hearth steel furnaces to utilize the sensible heat.
It must not be paid for and charged to the furnace as carbon. Sulphur in coke becomes part of the metallurgical load, entering metal and slag. In iron-making 90 per cent of the sulphur comes from the coke, and much of it must be removed as CaS necessitating an addition of limestone and a corresponding amount of coke to heat and melt it. The sulphur content of coke is usually about 1 per cent. It should be as low as possible but users often prefer a steady value even if it is always higher than the minimum occasionally attainable.
The determinations of reactivity (to C0 2 ) and of combustibility (to 0 2 ) are usually research jobs. ) test which is a test of "ignitability". This is carried out by determining the minimum air flow rate through a bed of fuel, in a standard piece of equipment, which will maintain its combustion once started. Values obtained in this test range from 0-01 ft3/min for highly reactive gas cokes to 0-07 ft3/min for very unreactive metallurgical coke. Less official tests involve comparing the rate of weight loss of standard samples of fuels under standard conditions, in atmospheres of air, oxygen, or C 0 2 .